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Full text of "Spokane resource management plan : record of decision : rangeland program summary (RPS)"

BLM LIBRARY 




J.S. Department of the Interior 

3ureau of Land Management 



Spokane District Office 



May 1987 



Spokane Resource 
Management Plan 
Record of Decision 



Rangeland Program Summary 
(RPS) 




Washington 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR . w P- 

Bureau of Land Management . , , ^ 3 



Spokane Resource 
Management Plan 

Record of Decision 

Rangeland Program 
Summary (RPS) 



Prepared By 

Department of the Interior 

Bureau of Land Management 



Record of Decision 



Spokane Resource Management Plan 
Spokane District, Spokane, Washington 



This resource management plan documents the decisions reached by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) 
for managing 307,523 acres of public land in the Spokane District. The decision is to adopt Alternative B the 
Preferred Alternative of the Final Resource Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement. The major 
decisions in this plan are: 

Continue to authorize grazing permits at the 1 983 total preference level, 30,073 Animal Unit Months (AUMs). 
Management systems will be developed, maintained, or revised for 1 6 Improve category allotments. Competitive 
forage will initially be available for wildlife at current levels. All future livestock use adjustments will focus on 
achieving 50 percent utilization of key forage species. 

Range improvements will be made in the Maintain and Custodial 1 allotments if the intermingled landowners 
cooperate in the preparation and implementation of Coordinated Resource Management Plans. 

Manage 41 ,443 acres of commercial forestland for a sustainable harvest level of approximately 39 million board 
feet per decade. Minor forest products will be sold where consistent with protection of other resource values. 

Conduct land tenure adjustments to consolidate or otherwise promote the efficient management of the public 
land resources, protect and improve valuable wildlife habitat, enhance recreational opportunities, and provide 
access to public lands. 

Leave all locatable minerals on public lands in the planning area open to entry under the provisions of the Mining 
Law of 1 872, as amended, except for 80 acres currently under protective withdrawal. All lands, currently available 
for mineral leasing, will remain available except for the 7,140-acre Juniper Dunes Wilderness Area. Leases in this 
area will not be reissued once terminated. 

Motorized vehicle designations are as follows: 230,500 acres are designated as open to motorized vehicle use; 
8,980 acres are designated as seasonally restricted to designated roads and trails; 54,705 acres are designated 
as permanently restricted to designated roads and trails; and 1 3,41 8 acres are designated as permanently closed 
to motorized vehicle use. (See Maps 4 and 5) 

Nine of the Ten areas, proposed for designation as Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in the Final RMP, are 
designated. These areas are Hot Lakes Research Natural Area (RNA), Brewster Roost, Colockum Creek, Rock 
Island Canyon, Yakima River Cliff and Umtanum Ridge, McCoy Canyon, Earthquake Point, Roosevelt Slope, and 
Sentinel Slope. In addition to the proposed ACECs, this ROD reaffirms the designations of the three existing 
ACECs, the Juniper Forest, Webber Canyon and the Yakima and Columbia River Islands ACECs. In all, a total of 
8,540 acres of public land are covered by these designations. 

Modify grazing systems and/or construct improvements to protect or improve riparian habitat. 

Alternatives Considered and Rationale for Decision 

Four alternatives for managing the public lands in Spokane District planning area were analyzed in the Resource 
Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement. 

The proposed Resource Management Plan (the Preferred Alternative in the Resource Management 
Plan/Environmental Impact Statement) emphasizes management, production on a sustained yield basis, and use 
of renewable resources on the majority of public lands in the Spokane District planning area while providing 
protection, maintenance, or enhancement of cultural, soil, water, botanical, and recreational resource values and 
big, small, and nongame habitats. Trade-offs will safeguard nonconsumptive uses while accommodating 
consumptive uses. The proposed Resource Management Plan best meets national guidance, best satisfies the 
planning criteria, and best resolves issues while contributing to the local economy. 

The Production Alternative emphasized the highest degree of commodity production allowable, considering 
legal constraints. Trade-offs emphasized consumptive uses over nonconsumptive uses. 



The Protection Alternative emphasized protection and enhancement of natural values while allowing use and 
production only at levels that do not risk diminishing such values. Trade-offs favored protection of the resource 
over consumptive uses. 

The No Action Alternative provided forthe continuation of existing management. This alternative maintained the 
present management direction while responding to requirements of new regulations and changing policies. 
Trade-offs emphasized commodity production while safeguarding critical resource values. (See Table S-1 for a 
summary of long-term environmental consequences.) 

Mitigation Measures 

All protective measures and program design features, identified in the plan, will be taken to mitigate adverse 
impacts. These measures will be strictly enforced during implementation. Monitoring and evaluation will indicate 
the effectiveness of these measures in minimizing environmental impacts. Therefore, additional measures to 
protect the environment may be taken during or following monitoring. 

District Recommendation 

I recommend adopting the Preferred Alternative of the Spokane Resource Management Plan/Environmental 
Impact Statement of August 2, 1 985, as written. 




Lee V. Larson 

Border Resource Area Manager 



-T//-1 /-^^a^ 



James F. Fisher 

Wenatchee Resource Area Manager 





Joseph K. Buesing 

District Manager, Spokane District 



rfff/tl 



Date 



State Director Approval 



I approve the Spokane Resource Management Plan decisions as recommended. Individual grazing decisions to 
implement the range land program portions of the RMP will be issued to the affected lessees forthose allotments 
where changes are proposed and agreement has not been reached. Those decisions will explain and provide for 
the protest and/or appeal procedures under 43 CFR 4160 and 43 CFR 4.470. 



This document meets the requirement for a Record of Decision as provided in 40 CFR 1505.2. 




Charles W. Luscher 

State Director Oregon/Washington 



Table S-1 Summary of Long-Term Environmental Consequences and 
Comparison of Alternative Allocations 



Unit of 
Measure 



Existing 
Situation 



Alternative A 
Production 



Alternative B 
Proposed RMP 



Alternative C 
Protection 



Alternative D 
No Action 



Soil 

(Erosion) 
Water 
Quantity 
Quality 
Vegetation 
Ecological Condition 
Climax 
Late Serai 
Mid Serai 
Early Serai 
Unclassified 

Threatened, Endangered, 
or Sensitive Species 
Wildlife Habitat Condition 
Upland Habitat 
Riparian Habitat 
Fish Habitat 
Livestock Grazing 
Available Forage 
Recreation 
Visitor Use Levels 
Off-Road Vehicle 
Open 
Limitations 
Closed 

Cultural Resources 
Protection of Values 
Visual Resources 
Protection/Enhancement 

of Visual Quality 
Special Management Areas 
Forest Products (1) 
No Planned Harvest (2) 
Noncommercial Forest 
(woodlands) 
Nonoperable 
Multiple Use Set Aside (4) 
Riparian 
Wildlife Habitat 
AC EC 
Subtotal 
Low Intensity Timber Production 
(equivalent acres) (5) 
Full Timber Production 
Base (2) 

Total Forestland 
Annual Sustainable Harvest 
Level 
Energy & Minerals 
Leasable Minerals (closed) 
No Surface Occupancy 
Stipulations 
Standard Stipulations 
Locatable Minerals 
Economic Conditions 
Long-Term Loss or 
Gain in Value 

+ Increase impact 

- Decrease impact 

in NC 

LLow 

M Moderate 

HHigh 



Acres 
Acres 
Acres 
Acres 
Acres 
Acres 



AUMs 



Acres 
Acres 
Acres 



Acres 
Acres 

554 
Acres 
Acres 
8,370 

1,680 

Acres 
Acres 



Acres 



Acres 



withdrawn 



($000) 



7,493 

35,376 

40,725 

59,556 

106,324 

NC 



30,073 



256,917 
37,268 
13,418 



2,484 
3,714 

277 
1,457 

161 
7,715 

966 

44,707 
54,757 

4.0 



20,298 

287,305 

7,220 



+L 

NC 
-L 



7,493 

38,506 

40,497 

56,654 

106,324 

NC 



-L 

-L 
NC 

31,521 

-L 

256,913 
37,312 
13,378 

NC 



2,484 
3,714 

416 
1,079 

161 
8,394 

1,920 

46,076 
54,757 

4.12 

7,140 

13,158 

287,305 

NC 

+62 



NC 
+L 



7,493 

46,589 

29,962 

58,227 

106,324 

NC 



+M 
+L 
NC 

30,107 

NC 

230,500 
63,685 
13,418 

NC 



+L 
14 



2,484 
3,714 

924 

1,619 

161 

12,683 

4,800 

41,443 
54,757 

3.98 

7,140 

13,158 

287,305 

NC 

-33 



-M 

NC 

+L 



7,493 

46,513 

29,970 

59,171 

106,324 

NC 



+M 
+L 

NC 

27,715 

NC 



294,185 

13,418 

NC 



+L 
14 



2,484 
3,714 

554 
5,400 

161 
8,370 

1,680 

37,274 
54,757 

3.33 

7,140 

13,158 

287,305 

NC 

-165 



NC 
-L 



7,493 

36,042 

39,733 

59,883 

106,324 

NC 



+L 
+L 
NC 

31,135 

NC 

256,917 
37,268 
13,418 

NC 



NC 
5 



2,484 
3,714 



1,457 
161 



44,707 
54,757 

4.00 

7,140 

13,158 

287,305 

NC 

+42 



(1 ) Minor forest products (firewood, posts, poles) not included. 

(2) A breakdown of acres by management area for the proposed plan is displayed 
No Change Table 2-5. 

(3) These acres have been removed from the timber production base due to fragile 
site condition and reforestation problems. 

(4) These acres are commercial forestland which would be withdrawn from timber production to protect 
other resources. Also shown on Table 2-5. 

(5) Although actual acres have not been identified, it is assumed that mitigation measures to reduce site- 
specific adverse effects would result in productivity losses equivalent to these acres. 



ill 



Table of Contents 

Page 

Record of Decision i 

Chapter 1 1 

Introduction 2 

Purpose and Need 2 

Description of the Planning Area 2 

Implementation 2 

Monitoring 5 

Maintenance 5 

Amendments and Revisions 5 

Valid Existing Rights 5 

Administrative Actions 5 

Public Involvement and Consistency 5 

Consultation Concerning Threatened and Endangered 

Species, and Cultural Resources 6 

Summary of Alternatives, Environmental Consequences and 

Environmental Preferability 6 

Chapter 2 - Spokane District Resource Management Plan Decisions 11 

Introduction 12 

Goals and Objectives of the Proposed Plan 12 

Delineation of Management Areas 12 

Planned Management Actions Under the Proposed Plan 12 

Land Tenure Adjustment and Access 13 

Recreation Management 16 

Wildlife and Fish Habitat Management 19 

Endangered, Threatened, or Sensitive Species Habitat 21 

Forest Management 22 

Range Program Summary/Grazing Management 24 

Ongoing Management Programs 27 

Soil, Water, and Air Management 27 

Noxious Weed Control 27 

Utility and Transportation Corridors 27 

Withdrawal Review 27 

Fire Management 28 

Mineral Resource 28 

Appendices 

Appendix A: Cooperative Agreement Summary 31 

Appendix B: Land Tenure Adjustment Criteria 33 

Appendix C: Standard Design Features 35 

Appendix D: Current Livestock Authorization, Estimated Livestock 

Carrying Capacities, and Selective Management Categories 45 

Appendix E: Fire Suppression and Management 53 

Maps 

1 General Location Map 3 



Page 

Tables 

S-1 Summary of Long-Term Environmental Consequences and 

Comparison of Alternative Allocations iii 

1 -1 Surface and Subsurface Ownership of Planning Area 4 

1 -2 Program Emphasis by Management Area 8 

2-1 Retention Area 14 

2-2 Pending and Proposed Land Exchanges 14 

2-3 Areas of Critical Environmental Concern 17 

2-4 Resource Management Plan ORV Designations . . . . . 18 

2-5 Management Area Prescription/Derivation of Timber 

Production Base Acreage 22 

2-6 Forest Management Practices and Land Use Allocations 

Under the Plan 23 

2-7 Uncut Timber Stands (40 acres in size or Layer) 23 

2-8 Summary of Allotment Categorization „ 25 

2-9 Range Improvements by Allotment (I Category Allotments Only) 25 

2-10 Mineral Leasing Direction Underthe Plan „ 29 



vi 



Chapter 1 




Introduction 

This plan contains the decisions on all land use 
proposals presented in the August 1 985 final 
environmental impact statement. It describes in 
general terms the implementation, monitoring, and 
amendment processes and discusses the 
management of each resource, the order in which 
projects will be managed, the order in which projects 
will be carried out, and what support will be needed. 

This plan does not present information on environ- 
mental consequences, rationale, consistency, or 
effects of the management. This information was 
previously covered in the draft and final environ- 
mental impact statements which may be obtained by 
contacting the Spokane District Office. 

The rangeland program summary portion of this 
document summarizes the livestock grazing 
management program and grazing decisions reached 
through this plan and consultation with affected 
parties. The rangeland program summary describes 
which selective management category each allotment 
falls into and gives a proposed schedule for issuance 
of grazing decisions where stocking rates are known. 
It also details the studies and actions to be taken to 
determine proposed stocking rates for those 
allotments where stocking rates are not known. 

Purpose and Need 

This plan provides a broad framework for multiple use 
management on public land. This plan makes land 
use allocations, sets broad production goals, and 
protects important resource values. 

In addition to meeting the requirements in the Federal 
Land Policy and Management Act of 1 976 for land 
use planning (43 CFR, Part 1 600), this plan satisfies 
the Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) policy to (1 ) 
respond to the court mandate (Natural Resources 
Defense Council, et al. versus Watt (Civil Action 1983- 
75)) requiring the BLM to complete a livestock grazing 
environmental impact statement; and (2) identify 
public land as open, closed, or limited for off-road 
vehicle use ( Executive Order 1 1 989) . It also will be 
used to calculate, in part, a sustained yield harvest 
level of forest products from BLM managed 
commercial forestlands in eastern Washington. 

Description of the 
Planning Area 

The planning unit is bordered by the Cascade 
Mountain Range to the west, the Canadian Border to 
the north, and the States of Oregon to the south and 
Idaho on the east. The BLM administers the public 
land in this area from the District and Area Offices in 
Spokane, Washington, and the Wenatchee Area 
Office in Wenatchee, Washington . The public land in 
this planning unit is scattered throughout 1 9 of the 20 
counties east of the Cascade Mountains. Spokane 
County is the only county in which the Bureau of Land 



Management (hereafter referred to as the BLM) does 
not manage any surface resource. 

Much of the public lands in the Spokane District are 
intermingled with private lands and lands managed by 
state agencies, such as the Washington State 
Department of Natural Resources (WSDNR) and 
Washington State Department of Game (WSDG). 
Other lands are adjacent to or near Indian 
reservations, national forests, Bureau of Reclamation 
(BR) administered lands, or Department of Energy 
lands. This intermingling has led, in many cases, to 
cooperative management of the lands. The Spokane 
District manages 8,400 acres of adjacent Bureau of 
Reclamation land in Grant County. The Spokane 
District also has 1 6 cooperative agreements with the 
Washington State Department of Game, under which 
the state manages the BLM land in conjunction with 
their own lands. (See Appendix A.) 

This ownership pattern, along with the extreme 
topographic and climatic differences, complicates the 
management of these lands. To facilitate analysis in 
the Resource Management Planning process, these 
lands have been grouped into 13 management areas 
that exhibit either similar resource values or public 
concerns. The approximate locations and acreages of 
these management areas are depicted on Map 1 and 
Table 1 -1 respectively. 

This Record of Decision does not address resource 
issues on 2,900 acres of BLM administered land in 
western Washington. 

The 1 0,000 acres of public land in southern Asotin 
and Garfield Counties, which are in the Grand Ronde 
River Basin in Washington, are managed by the 
Baker Resource Area, Vale District, Baker, Oregon. 
Management direction and resource allocations will 
be developed through the Baker Resource 
Management Plan which is scheduled to be 
completed in 1987. 



Implementation 



Decisions in the plan will be implemented over a 
period of years and will be tied to the BLM budgeting 
process. Therefore, priorities have been established 
for each resource to guide the order of 
implementation. The priorities link the planned actions 
in the resource management plan with the budget 
process. Priorities for each program will be reviewed 
annually to help develop the annual work plan 
commitments for the coming year. The priorities may 
be revised based upon new administrative policy, new 
Departmental directions, or new Bureau goals. The 
priorities of implementation are presented by resource 
in Chapter 2. 

Activity plans and environmental assessments may 
be required prior to conducting specific activities such 
as timber harvests. For example, forest management 
plans will show specific project locations; specific 
project proposals and the associated environmental 
assessments would describe and analyze the impacts 



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OREGON 



JUNE 1986 



MAP 1 



1. Similkameen 

2. Conconully 

3. Jameson Lake 

4. Douglas Creek 

5. Saddle Mountains 

6. Rattlesnake Hills 



Legend 

7. Badger Slope 

8. Rock Creek 

9. North Ferry 
1 0. North Stevens 
11. Huckleberry Mountains 
1 2. Juniper Forest 



U. S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

SPOKANE DISTRICT, WASHINGTON 



MANAGEMENT AREAS 



Table 1-1 Surface Landownership of Planning Area 



Acres 



% of Total 



Federal (BLM) 

Federal (United States Forest Service) 
Federal (Bureau of Reclamation) 
Federal (Yakima Firing Center) 
Federal (Hanford Works--DOE) 
Indian Reservations 
State 
Private 
Total 



307,603 

5,462,388 

523,500 

261,000 

364,800 

2,334,325 

1,452,280 

7,872,912 

18,578,808 



1.7 

29.4 

2.8 

1.4 

1.9 

12.6 

7.8 

42.4 

100.0 



Management Area (MA) 



Administering 
Resource Area 



Total Acres 



BLM 



% of Total 



Similkameen 
Conconully 
Jameson Lake 
Douglas Creek 
Saddle Mountains 
Rattlesnake Hills 
Badger Slope 
Rock Creek 
North Ferry 
North Stevens 
Huckleberry Mountains 
Juniper Forest 
Scattered Tracts 
Total 



Wenatchee 
Wenatchee 
Wenatchee 
Wenatchee 
Wenatchee 
Wenatchee 

Border 
Wenatchee 

Border 

Border 

Border 

Border 
Wenatchee & Border 



200,960 
141,440 

35,200 
183,680 
147,200 
1 93,920 

48,630 

36,560 
294,400 
376,200 
168,960 

51,520 

16,640,298 

18,578,808 



28,900 

11,500 

3,660 

22,000 

24,300 

24,725 

7,720 

6,427 

13,000 

13,205 

11,269 

17,120 

123,697 

307,523 



14.4 

8.1 

10.4 

11.9 

16.5 

12.8 

15.9 

17.6 

4.4 

3.5 

6.7 

33.0 

.7 

1.7 



Mineral Ownership 



County 



Acres 

Public Land 

Administered 

by BLM 



*Private Surface 
Federal Subsurface 
Minerals 



Total 
Acreage 
of County 



Adams 
Asotin 
Benton 
Chelan 
Columbia 
Douglas 
Ferry 
Franklin 
Garfield 
Grant 
Kittitas 
Klickitat 
Lincoln 
Okanogan 
Pend Oreille 
Stevens 
Walla Walla 
Whitman 
Yakima 
Total 



601 
10,422 
14,524 
21 ,574 

519 
37,683 
11,968 
17,367 

433 
37,129 
16,009 
17,402 
6,974 
55,256 
1,904 
29,813 

698 

1,334 

25,913 

307,523 



35,588 
20,400 
43,559 
25,142 
11,025 
41,133 

120,005 
3,444 

274,591 
80,695 
39,737 
21,346 
15,884 



6,989 

12,029 

75,150 

706,285 



1,212,800 

401,280 

1,095,680 

1 ,875,840 

550,400 

1,177,600 

1,406,080 

806,400 

456,960 

1,721,600 

1,481,600 

1,219,200 

1,472,000 

3,387,520 

899,840 

1,591,040 

814,080 

1,406,968 

2,734,720 

18,578,808 



' Includes other federal subsurface lands where BLM has oil and gas and/or other mineral leasing authority. 



of specific actions associated with development, 
operation, and rehabilitation of the project benefits. 



Monitoring 



This plan will be evaluated every five years and at 
other times as appropriate, based upon the sensitivity 
of the resources to the decisions involved. This type 
of monitoring will be conducted to review the plan as 
a whole to determine the need for revision or 
amendment. Specific actions within the plan will also 
be monitored annually. Individual resources will be 
monitored as explained in Chapter 2. Periodic 
evaluation will determine whether actions are 
consistent with current policy, whether original 
assumptions were correct and impacts correctly 
predicted, whether mitigation measures are 
satisfactory, whether significant changes have been 
made in related plans of other federal agencies or 
state or local governments, or whether new data is of 
significance to the plan. Annual resource monitoring 
will also help to establish long-term use and resource 
condition trends and provide valuable information for 
future planning. Ultimately, resource monitoring and 
plan evaluation will determine whetherthere is 
sufficient cause to warrant maintenance, amendment, 
or revision of the plan. Additional resource program 
monitoring information is outlined in Chapter 2 under 
the respective program narratives. 

Maintenance 

This plan will be maintained as necessary to reflect 
minor changes in data. This maintenance will be 
limited to refining ordocumenting a previously 
approved decision. It shall not expand the scope of 
resource uses or restrictions or change the terms, 
conditions, and decisions of the plan. Maintenance 
will be documented in supporting records. Formal 
public involvement will not be necessary to maintain 
the plan. 

Amendments and 
Revisions 

This plan may be amended or revised if major 
changes are necessary. Monitoring and evaluation 
findings, new data, new or revised policy, a change in 
circumstances or a proposed action that may result in 
change in the scope, terms, or conditions of the plan 
would warrant an amendment or revision. An 
amendment will be analyzed either in an 
environmental assessment or an environmental 
impact statement. The public and other agencies will 
be included in the amendment and revision 
processes. 

Valid Existing Rights 

This plan will not repeal valid existing rights on public 
lands. Valid existing rights are those claims or rights 
to public land that takes precedence over the actions 
in this plan. Valid existing rights may be held by other 
federal agencies or by private individuals or 
companies. Valid existing rights may pertain to mining 



claims, oil and gas leases, rights-of-way, and water 
rights. 

Administrative Actions 

Various types of administrative actions will require 
special attention beyond the scope of this plan. 
Administrative actions are the day-to-day transactions 
required to serve the public and to provide optimal 
use of the resources. These actions are in conform- 
ance with the plan. They include issuance of permits 
forfuelwood, sawtirhber, Christmas trees, and 
competitive and commercial recreation activities; 
lands actions, including issuance of grants, leases, 
permits, and resolution of trespass; facility 
maintenance; law enforcement; enforcement and 
monitoring of permit stipulations; cadastral surveys to 
determine legal landownership; and engineering 
support to assist in mapping, designing, and 
implementing projects. These and other adminis- 
trative actions will be conducted at the resource area, 
district, or state offices. The degree to which these 
actions are carried out will be based upon BLM policy, 
available personnel, and funding levels. 

Public Involvement and 
Consistency 

This resource management plan was prepared by an 
interdisciplinary team of specialists from the Spokane 
District Office. Writing of the RMP began in March 
1 983; however, a complex process that began in 
1 981 preceded the writing phase. This process 
included resource inventory, public participation, 
interagency coordination and preparation of a 
management situation analysis (on file in the 
Spokane District Office). Consultation and 
coordination with agencies, organizations, and 
individuals occurred in a variety of ways throughout 
the planning process. 

Spokane District Advisory 
Council 

The Bureau's Spokane District Advisory Council 
participated in a review of the preliminary draft of the 
Preferred Alternative and scoping analysis. Their 
review and subsequent feedback was helpful in 
formulation of the Preferred Alternative. 

Public Participation 

In July of 1983, a notice was published in the Federal 
Register and local news media to announce the 
formal start of the RMP planning process. At that 
time, a planning report was sent to the public to 
request further definition of major issues within the 
planning area. It also provided an opportunity to 
comment on proposed criteria for the formulation of 
alternatives. 

On April.27, 1 984, a notice of document availability 
was published in the Federal Register and, 
subsequently, in the local news media forthe 
"Spokane Resource Management Plan Proposed 



Land Use Alternatives" brochure. Approximately 700 
copies were mailed to federal, state, and local 
governments and private groups, organizations, and 
individuals for review and comment. This document 
provided an outline of proposed alternatives, listed 
major issues, and revised planning criteria. Three 
alternatives portrayed various resource programs 
showing an arrangement from emphasis on 
production of commodities to emphasis on 
enhancement of natural values with a middle ground 
alternative attempting to establish a point between the 
two. The fourth (No Action) alternative portrays the 
existing situation. On October 1 , 1984, a Federal 
Register notice announced availability of the Draft 
Spokane Resource Management Plan and 
Environmental Impact Statement and provided the 
addresses for obtaining copies and for submitting 
written comments. Over 1 ,000 copies of this 
document were also mailed to federal, state, and local 
governments, private groups, organizations, and 
individuals for review and comment. The Draft stated 
that the public comment period would begin October 
1 and end on December 31 , 1 984. No public 
meetings were scheduled during the comment period. 
However, the Spokane District personnel did meet 
with fourdifferent groups at their request to clarify 
partisan concerns with the RMP. 

The notice of availability for the final EIS was 
published on August 14, 1985, in the Federal 
Register. This notice announced the commencement 
of the protest period which ended on September 1 6, 
1985. 

Over 1 ,000 copies of the final EIS were mailed to the 
same target groups that the Draft RMP/EIS was 
mailed. Two protests were received, reviewed, and 
denied by the Director of the BLM. The governor of 
Washington did not identify any inconsistencies with 
state or local plans, policies, or programs or 
recommend any changes in the proposed plan. 

Consultation Concerning 
Threatened and 
Endangered Species, 
and Cultural Resources 

Informal and formal consultation with the U.S. Fish 
and Wildlife Service (USF&WS) will be initiated on all 
proposed actions which may affect any federally listed 
threatened or endangered species. Consultation will 
be done in accordance with Section 7 of the 
Endangered Species Act, as amended. 

An appropriate level of inventory to identify historic 
and prehistoric sites or features will be conducted in 
areas proposed for Bureau initiated or authorized 
surface disturbing projects (such as range 
improvements, timber sales, road construction, land 
sales, or exchanges). Sites discovered are evaluated 
using criteria for placement on the National Register 
of Historic Places (36 CFR 60.6) in consultation with 



the State Historic Preservation Officer. The BLM 
considers the effect of any proposed undertaking on 
sites which meet the National Register criteria by 
following regulations of the Advisory Council on 
Historic Preservation (36 CFR 800) or a memoranda 
of agreement negotiated with the Council. 

In most cases, adverse effects to National Register 
quality sites are avoided by relocating ground- 
disturbing activities. Where relocating a planned 
project is not feasible, mitigation of adverse effects to 
significant cultural properties may be necessary. 
Mitigation will usually be an attempt to extract and 
preserve those attributes of a site which qualify it for 
the National Register. For example, many prehistoric 
sites are significant forthe information they may 
provide about ancient Indian life ways and cultural 
adaptations. Various levels of site recording, 
excavation, and analysis can often retrieve the 
important information, preserving it in records and 
reports. 

Sites with sociocultural values or aesthetic and 
recreational values suitable for public interpretation 
may be more difficult to mitigate by data recovery. 
Decisions about the treatment of such sites will be 
made on a case-by-case basis in consultation with 
the State Historic Preservation Officer. 

Summary of Alternatives, 
Environmental 
Consequences, and 
Environmental Preferability 

Four multiple use alternatives forthe management of 
public lands in the Spokane District were developed 
and analyzed in accordance with the Bureau of Land 
Management's planning regulations issued under 
authority of the Federal Land Policy and Management 
Act of 1976 (FLPMA). The alternatives responded to 
four issues: Grazing Management, Land Tenure 
Adjustment, Access to Public Lands, and Recreation 
Management. These issues were identified through 
the planning process. The purpose of the proposed 
alternatives was to present and evaluate options for 
managing, protecting, and enhancing public 
resources. 

These alternatives were a master plan that provided a 
framework within which future, more site-specific 
decisions could be made. 

The four alternatives considered were: 

Alternative A (Production) 

This alternative emphasized economic benefits to the 
local economies. Multiple use management 
emphasized the production of goods and services on 
public lands within the Spokane RMP area to meet 
local and possibly regional demands. 



This alternative also called for the development of 
allotment management plans (AMPs) and/or 
coordinated resource management plans (CRMPs) 
forthe improve (I) category allotments to establish 
livestock use levels, grazing systems, seasons of use, 
and range improvements to enhance livestock 
production. CRMPs forthe public land outside of the I 
and maintain (M) allotments would have also been 
developed. Livestock grazing was emphasized where 
conflicts with other major resource values were 
minimal. Authorized livestock use was adjusted for 
the 1 6 1 category allotments to achieve 70 % 
utilization of key forage species. (See pages 24 and 
25 for a description of the grazing allotment 
categories.) 

The sustainable timber harvest level was based on 
46,076 acres of commercial forest land. The sustain- 
able harvest levels was evaluated at 4.1 2 MM bd. ft 
annually or 41 .2 MM bd. ft. forthe decade. The sale 
of woodland forest products would be emphasized. 

Alternative B (Proposed 
Resource Management Plan) 

The proposed Resource Management Plan (RMP) 
emphasized the management, production, and use 
of renewable resources on the majority of the public 
lands in the Spokane District. Management was 
directed toward providing a f fow of renewable 
resources from the public lands on a sustained yield 
basis. This alternative represented the Bureau's 
favored management approach. 

Grazing leases were authorized at the 1982 total 
preference level of 30,073 AUMs. Management 
systems were to be developed, maintained, or 
revised forthe 1 6 1 category allotments. 

This alternative stressed development of AMPs 
and/or CRMPs for the I allotments to establish 
livestock use levels, grazing systems, seasons of 
use, and range improvements to accomplish multiple 
use objectives of livestock forage production, wildlife 
habitat, and watershed needs. CRMPs forthe public 
land outside the I and M albtments would also have 
been developed. A moderate level of livestock use to 
maintain or protect other resource values was 
emphasized. Authorized livestock use would initially 
remain at currently authorized levels forthe 1 6 1 
category allotments but would be adjusted through 
collection and analyses of monitoring data to achieve 
50 % utilization of key forage species. 

The sustainable timber harvest level was based on 
44,443 acres of commercial forest land. The 
sustainable harvest level was calculated at 3.98 MM 
bd. ft. annually or 39.8 MM bd. ft. for a ten-year 
period. Woodland forest products would be sold 
where consistent with other resource values. 

Approximately 40,000 acres were ktentif ied for 
acquisition through land exchanges with the State of 
Washington and private parties over the next four 
years. There would be approximately 20,000 acres of 
public land offered to facilitate these exchanges. 



Exchanges and transfers to other federal agencies 
would take place when natural resource values would 
benefit. 

Alternative C (Protection) 

This alternative emphasized protection, maintenance, 
and enhancement of the natural environment within 
the planning area. The enjoyment and use of the 
natural environment for present and future 
generations, both locally and nationally, would be 
emphasized. 

This alternative stressed development of AMPs 
and/or CRMPs forthe I allotments to establish 
livestock use levels, grazing systems, seasons of use, 
and range improvements to accomplish wildlife, 
watershed, and other objectives related to enhance- 
ment of natural values. CRMPs for the public land 
outside the I and M allotments would have also been 
developed. A lower level of livestock use to enhance 
natural values was emphasized. Authorized livestock 
use was adjusted forthe 1 6 1 category allotments to 
achieve 30 % utilization of key forage species. 

The sustainable timber harvest level was based on 
37,247 acres of commercial forest land. The 
sustainable harvest level was calculated at 3.33 MM 
bd. ft. annually or 33.3 MM bd. ft. forthe decade. 
Multiple use constraints on forest management 
activities and commercial forest land set-asides were 
expanded. Important forest habitat values were to be 
preserved. Sales of woodland products were to be 
restricted to protect other resource values. 

Land exchanges in the scattered tracts were to be 
conducted to acquire land within Juniper Dune 
Wilderness (850 acres), area of critical environmental 
concern (ACEC) inholdings (5,1 20 acres), and land 
with special values in the other 1 1 management areas 
(5,000 acres). 

Alternative D (No Action) 

This alternative allowed for the management and flow 
of outputs from the public lands and resources in the 
planning area at their present levels. The planning 
area was operating under Management Framework 
Plans (MFPs) that were developed from 1 977 through 
1 981 . Formal management direction is derived from 
these MFPs. 

This alternative called for implementation of AMPs 
and/or CRMPs fortwo I allotments and custodial 
management forthe 14 remaining I allotments. 
Currently authorized use levels would be maintained 
except where adjustments were planned in existing 
activity plans. 

There were 44,707 acres of commercial forest lands 
on which the sustainable harvest level was based. 
The annual sustainable harvest level was 4.0 MM bd. 
ft. annually or 40 MM bd. ft. for the decade. Woodland 
products were offered for sale based upon demand. 



Table 1-2 displays the priority in which the resource 
programs would be emphasized in the 13 manage- 
ment areas. For example, under Alternative B in the 
Douglas Creek Management Area, recreation has top 
priority with wildlife habitat, grazing, and soil and 
water following in second, third, and fourth priorities 
respectively. Priorities reflect the order in which 
funds for the different resource management 
programs would be allocated in annual work plans. 
See Table S-1 for a summary of the long-term 
environmental consequences and resource 
allocations. 

Environmental Preferability 
of the Alternatives 

Environmental preferability is judged using the criteria 
in the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 
(NEPA). Title I, Section 101(b) of NEPA establishes 
the following goals: 

1 . Fulfill the responsibilities of each generation as 
trustee of the environment for succeeding 
generations; 



2. Assure for all Americans a safe, healthful, 
productive, and aesthetically and culturally pleasing 
surroundings; 

3. Attain the widest range of beneficial uses of the 
environment without degradation, risk to health or 
safety, or other undesirable and unintended 
consequences; 

4. Preserve important historic, cultural, and natural 
aspects of our national heritage, and maintain, 
wherever possible, an environment which supports a 
diversity and variety of individual choice; 

5. Achieve a balance between population and 
resource use which will permit high standards of living 
and a wide sharing of life's amenities; and 

6. Enhance the quality of renewable resources and 
approach the maximum attainable recycling of 
depletable resources. 



Table 1-2 Program Emphasis by Management Area 








Management Areas 














Jameson 


Douglas 


Saddle 


Rattlesnake 


Badger 


Alternatives 


Similkameen 

Grazing 


Conconully 


Lake 


Creek 


Mountains 


Hills 


Slope 


Alternative A 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Grazing 


(Production) 


Recreation 
Forest 


Recreation 
Forest 


Recreation 


Recreation 


Minerals 
Recreation 


Recreation 


Recreation 


Alternative B 


Grazing 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Recreation 


Minerals 


Grazing 


Grazing 


(Proposed RMP) 


Recreation 


Habitat 


Habitat 


Wildlife 


Grazing 


Recreation 


Recreation 




Forest 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Habitat 


Recreation 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 




Wildlife 


Recreation 


Recreation 


Grazing 


Wildlife 


Habitat 


Habitat 




Habitat 


Forest 




Soil and 
Water 


Habitat 
Soil and 
Water 






Alternative C 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Soil and 


Grazing 


Wildlife 


(Protection) 


Habitat 


Habitat 


Habitat 


Habitat 


Water 


Recreation 


Habitat 




Grazing 


Grazing 


Cultural 


Grazing 


Grazing 




Grazing 




Recreation 


Recreation 


Resources 


Recreation 


Recreation 




Recreation 




Forest 


Forest 


Recreation 










Alternative D 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Grazing 


(No Action) 


Recreation 


Recreation 


Recreation 


Recreation 


Recreation 


Recreation 


Recreation 




Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Soil and 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 




Habitat 


Habitat 


Habitat 


Habitat 


Water 


Habitat 


Habitat 




Forest 


Forest 




Soil and 
Water 


Minerals 







The Preferred Alternative (Alternative B) in the EIS 
ranked first in overall preferability. It was believed to 
be in compliance with all NEPA goals, especially 
goals 1,3,5, and 6. The next environmentally 
preferable alternative was the Protection Alternative 
(Alternative C). This alternative was in greater 
compliance with goal 2 than the Preferred Alternative; 
however, it did not comply as well with goals 5 and 6 
when compared to the Preferred Alternative. 

The Production Alternative (Alternative A) was in 
greatest compliance with goal 6 and to a lesser 
degree goals 1 and 5 because of its emphasis on 
maximum productivity. The continued present 
management or No Action Alternative (Alternative D) 
was in compliance with goals 2 and 4 because it 
maintains current conditions. This alternative was, to 
a lesser degree than the Preferred Alternative, in 
compliance with goals 1 , 3, 5, and 6. However, 
because it made little attempt to enhance 
environmental quality of diversity and did not improve 
social or economic well being, it was not preferred. 




Automated weather station located in the Juniper Forest 
Management Area 



Table 1-2 (continuation) 






~ 












Management Areas 








Rock 


North 


North 


Huckleberry 


Juniper 


Scattered 


Alternatives 


Creek 


Ferry 


Stevens 


Mountains 


Forest 


Tracts 


Alternative A 


Recreation 


Forest 


Forest 


Forest 


Grazing 


Lands 


(Production) 


Wildlife 


Grazing 


Grazing 


Recreation 


Recreation 


Grazing 




Habitat 


Recreation 


Recreation 






Recreation 




Grazing 










Forest 




Forest 












Alternative B 


Recreation 


Forest 


Forest 


Forest 


Grazing 


Lands 


(Proposed RMP) 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Grazing 


Wildlife 


Recreation 


Grazing 




Habitat 


Habitat 


Recreation 


Habitat 




Recreation 




Forest 


Recreation 




Recreation 




Forest 


Alternative C 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Wildlife 


Lands 


(Protection) 


Habitat 


Habitat 


Habitat 


Habitat 


Habitat 


Grazing 




Recreation 


Cultural 


Grazing 


Cultural 


Grazing 


Recreation 






Resources 


Recreation 


Resources 


Recreation 


Forest 






Recreation 


Forest 


Recreation 










Forest 




Forest 






Alternative D 


Grazing 


Forest 


Forest 


Forest 


Grazing 


Lands 


(No Action) 


Recreation 


Wildlife 


Grazing 


Wildlife 


Recreation 


Grazing 




Wildlife 


Habitat 


Recreation 


Habitat 




Recreation 




Habitat 


Recreation 




Recreation 




Forest 




Soil and 


Grazing 












Water 














Forest 













10 



Chapter 2 
Spokane Resource 
Management Plan Decisions 







Introduction 

This chapter describes the Resource Management 
Plan. Management actions were selected on the 
basis of their ability to resolve the issues raised 
during the planning process, satisfy planning criteria 
and public input, and mitigate environmental 
consequences. 

The plan is the preferred alternative, Alternative B, 
identified in the Spokane Resource Management Plan 
and Environmental Impact Statement (RMP/EIS). 
There were no significant changes made to the 
proposed plan described in the Final RMP/EIS. 

Approval of the RMP marks the completion of one 
stage of the planning process. The RMP is not a final 
implementation decision on actions which require 
further specific plans, process steps, ordecisions 
under specific provisions of law and regulations. More 
site specific plans or activity plans, such as habitat 
management plans (HMPs), will be done through the 
resource activity programs. Procedures and methods 
for accomplishing the objectives of the RMP will be 
developed through the activity plan. Further 
environmental analyses will be conducted, and 
additional engineering and other studies or project 
plans will be done if needed. 

Goals and Objectives of 
the Proposed Plan 

Goal: Provide a variety of uses within the sustained 
yield capability of the resource. This plan presents a 
combination of renewable and nonrenewable 
resource uses, incorporating the necessary 
constraints for protecting resources from irreversible 
decline. 

Trade-offs would safeguard nonconsumptive uses 
while accommodating consumptive uses. 

General Management 
Objectives 

1 . Protect or enhance water quality with particular 
attention to those watersheds with major downstream 
water uses including anadromous and other sport 
fisheries and agriculture. 

2. Maintain and/or improve range productivity by 
providing available forage to maintain existing or 
target wildlife populations as estimated by the 
Washington State Department of Game. The 
remaining forage would be provided for livestock. 
Allow for the maintenance of all existing 
improvements. Implement management systems and 
all range improvements in allotments where projects 
and/or management systems are cost effective. 
Improve riparian habitat through management of 
livestock use. 

3. Adjust the level of sustained yield timber production 
by restricting production on specific forest lands, 



where appropriate, to accommodate other resource 
values. Forest lands would be withdrawn from 
production only when stipulations and/or mitigation 
would not adequately protect the other resources. 

4. Keep public lands open for exploration/ 
development of mineral resources, rights-of-way, 
access, and other public purposes with consideration 
to mitigate designated resource concerns. 

5. Enhance BLM land pattern and resource manage- 
ment efficiency through land tenure adjustments. 
Identify opportunities for jurisdictional transfers and 
develop leases or cooperative management 
agreements with other agencies or private individuals 
to improve management efficiency. 

6. Manage upland habitat for nongame and game 
species to meet Washington State Department of 
Game population targets. 

7. Manage public lands and keep access routes open 
for a variety of recreational opportunities/experiences, 
including both motorized and nonmotorized recreation 
activities. 

8. Considerthe protection and/or enhancement of 
state listed threatened or endangered species 
habitat. 

Delineation of 
Management Areas 

The Spokane District has been divided into 13 
management areas: seven are located in the 
Wenatchee Resource Area and five in the Border 
Resource Area. The 1 3th management area consists 
of scattered tracts of public land in both resource 
areas. See Maps 1-5. 

Management area boundaries separate areas which, 
because of different resource values and/or manage- 
ment opportunities or constraints, require different 
management guidance. The boundaries of the 
management areas are not absolutely fixed and may 
be adjusted in the future on the basis of land tenure 
adjustments or additional information gained during 
the formulation of activity plans. 

Each management area has a specific set of 
management prescriptions. Management area 
guidelines, along with the district wide program 
management guidance, define what the total 
management direction is and how it would be 
implemented. 

Planned Management 
Actions Under the 
Proposed Plan 

This section describes the planned actions, outlines 
what support would be needed, if any, and 
determines priorities for implementing the planned 



12 



actions. The planned management actions will be 
used as a mechanism to resolve the planning issues 
displayed in the preferred alternative within the Draft 
RM P/EIS and the proposed plan in the Final 
RMP/EIS. These documents are available for 
inspection in the Spokane District Office. 

The priorities were established based on public 
demands, administration policy, and Department of 
the Interior and BLM directives. Therefore, these 
priorities may be revised as policy and directives 
change. The highest priority for each resource is 
maintaining its base program. This includes funding 
normal operating costs, completing administrative 
duties, and processing public inquiries. 

The listed support actions are foreseeable at this 
time. The need for additional support actions, such as 
engineering and other studies or specific project 
plans, may be identified as a result of further 
planning. All such actions will be designed to achieve 
the objectives of the RMP. Additional environmental 
analyses will be conducted, where appropriate, to 
supplement the analysis in the RMP/EIS.' 

Land Tenure Adjustment 
and Access 

Exchanges 

Most of the public land within the twelve management 
areas will remain in public ownership and continue to 
be administered by the Bureau of Land Management, 
although the transfer of public lands to other public 
land management agencies will occur if more efficient 
management of the land will result. The twelve 
management areas are Similkameen, Conconully, 
Jameson Lake, Douglas Creek, Saddle Mountains, 
Rattlesnake Hills, Badger Slope, Rock Creek, North 
Ferry, North Stevens, Huckleberry Mountains, and 
Juniper Forest. The highest land tenure adjustment 
priority will be placed on consolidation of public lands 
through land exchanges into, between and within the 
twelve management areas shown on Map 2. Bureau 
administered lands within the twelve management 
areas currently under cooperative management 
agreements, designated as wilderness, wilderness 
study areas, or as areas of critical environmental 
concern (including those designated in this plan) 
totaling 38,448 acres will not be transferred from 
federal ownership. See Table 2-1 . 

Exchanges will be made only when the public interest 
will be well served, giving full consideration to better 
Federal land management and the needs of the State 
and local people, including needs for lands for the 
economy, community expansion, recreation areas, 
food, fiber, minerals, and fish and wildlife. Acquisition 
of lands, or interests in lands, will emphasize 
inholdings or lands adjacent to BLM lands with 
wilderness; threatened, endangered or sensitive 
species habitat; high scenic or other recreational 
values, designated Areas of Critical Environmental 



Concern; and other opportunities to consolidate BLM 
lands within the twelve management areas or improve 
BLM and public access to other public lands. The 
value of lands, or interests in lands, to be exchanged 
shall be equal, or if they are not equal, the values 
shall be equalized by the payment of money so long 
as the payment does not exceed 25% of the total 
value of the lands or interests transferred out of 
federal ownership. 

Prior to the exchange of these lands, site-specific on- 
the-ground inventories will be conducted and an 
environmental analysis with opportunity for public 
review and comment will be prepared. If, as a result 
of these inventories, any of these lands are found to 
possess values which would prevent them from 
meeting the exchange criteria they would be retained 
and managed by BLM pursuant to the management 
prescriptions of the management unit where they are 
located. See Appendix B. 

There are approximately 40,680 acres identified for 
acquisition through land exchanges with the State of 
Washington and private parties. These areas are 
listed in table 2-2. This is not an all-inclusive list but is 
representative of the type of high priority exchanges 
that will be pursued in the initial RMP 
implementation. 

The Scattered Tracts Management Area contains 
1 23,777 acres of BLM lands in a gross area of 
1 6,640,298 acres. Any land to be acquired within the 
Scattered Tracts Management Area, will be that 
which is needed to enhance or protect unique or 
important public land values such as threatened, 
endangered or sensitive species habitat, riparian 
habitat, or other recreation values. 

BLM will acquire minimum access as needed to 
achieve management objectives. The preferred 
method will be through negotiated purchase of an 
easement or land exchange. Proposed land 
acquisitions, including public and administrative 
access across non-Federal lands, are noted in the 
specific Management Area Prescriptions which 
follow. 

Sales 

A total of 1 ,672.8 acres of public lands have been 
reviewed by an interdisciplinary team and, based 
upon information available to the team at this time, 
have been found to meet one or more of the sale 
criteria in FLPM A. However, prior to the sale of any of 
these lands, site-specific on-the-ground inventories 
will be conducted to verify this finding and an 
environmental analysis with opportunity for public 
review and comment will be prepared. If as a result of 
these more intensive inventories any of these lands 
are found to possess values which would prevent 
them from meeting the FLPMA sale criteria, they 
would be retained and managed by BLM pursuant to 
the management prescriptions of the management 
unit where they are located. See Appendix B. 



13 



Table 2-1 Retention Areas 



Area Name 


County Located 


Juniper Dunes Wilderness 


Franklin 


Chopaka Mountain Wilderness Study Area 


Okanogan 


Hot Lakes ACEC(RNA) 


Oaknogan 


Brewster Roost ACEC 


Douglas 


Colockum Creek ACEC 


Chelan 


Rock Island Canyon ACEC 


Douglas 


Yakima River Cliffs & Umtanum Ridge ACEC 


Yakima, Kittitas 


McCoy Canyon ACEC 


Benton 


Earthquake Point ACEC 


Chelan 


Roosevelt ACEC 


Klickitat 


Sentinel Slope ACEC 


Grant 


Webber Canyon ACEC 


Benton 


Yakima and Columbia River Islands ACEC 


Franklin, Benton 


Juniper Forest ACEC 


Franklin 



Acreage 



All Cooperative Agreement Areas listed in Appendix A 



Total 



7,140 

5,518 

80 

200 

80 

1,200 

320 

100 

40 

80 

200 

40 

640 

5,540 

17,270 

38,448 



Table 2-2 Pending and Proposed Land Exchanges 

Note: (1) The following acreages are rounded and approximate. 
(2) The "selected" lands are presently BLM administered. 



Fiscal Name of 


Acres 


Acres 


Benefitting 


Year Exchange 


Offered 


Selected 


Management Areas 


A. State (DNR) Exchanges 








1988 DNR-SE 


4,000 


1,300 


Juniper Forest, Douglas 
Creek, Saddle Mountains 


1989 DNR-NE 


4,200 


2,000 


Conconully, Similkameen 


B. Private Exchanges 








1987 


15,460 


3,270 


Douglas Creek 

Juniper Forest, Saddle Mtns. 

USFS Alpine Lakes W.A. 


1988 


3,100 


2,100 


Huckleberry Mtns. 
Rattlesnake Hills 
Douglas Creek 


1989 


13 ,,920 


11,760 


Juniper Forest 
Huckleberry Mtns. 
Rock Creek 
Douglas Creek 
Saddle Mountains 


Total 


40,680 


20,430 





14 



All of these parcels are difficult and uneconomic to 
manage as part of the public lands and, based on 
staff review as well as public review and comment, 
are not suitable for management by another Federal 
department or agency. (None of the tracts were 
acquired for a specific purpose which is no longer 
required). Many of the parcels, if sold or exchanged, 
could serve important public objectives, including 
expansion of communities or economic development, 
which cannot be achieved prudently or feasibly on 
land other than public land and which outweigh other 
public objectives and values. The BLM bases this 
determination on data available as of the date of 
approval of this plan. Prior to disposal, through any 
means, each parcel will be examined in the field to 
verify compliance with the disposal criteria listed in 
Appendix B. This will prevent the inadvertent disposal 
of public lands, after the date of RMP approval, which 
contain high federal interest resource values such as 
a newly listed threatened or endangered plant, bald 
eagle nest, significant cultural resource, or new 
mining claim. 

Public land will only be sold when the following 
circumstances exist: (1 ) it is required by national 
policy; (2) it is required to achieve disposal objectives 
on a timely basis and where disposal through 
exchange would cause unacceptable delays; (3) it is 
determined that disposal through exchange is not 
feasible; or (4) it is required to facilitate title 
clearance. 

The preferred method of selling public land would be 
by competitive sealed bidding by qualifying 
purchasers. However, modified competitive bidding or 
direct sale procedures may be used when necessary 
to avoid jeopardizing an existing use on adjacent land 
or to avoid dislocation of existing public land users. 
No land will be sold for a monetary amount less than 
fair market value, as determined by appraisal. 

Disposal of lands will be under the applicable 
authorities and in the following order of preference: 

1 . State lieu and State grant selections. 

2. State exchanges. 

3. Private exchanges. 

4. Recreation and Public Purpose patents. 

5. BLM/USDA Forest Service jurisdiction transfers. 

6. Withdrawals to other Federal agencies. 

7. Public sales. 

8. Indian allotments. 

9. Desert land entries (subject to the Food Securities 
Act of 1985). 



Implementation 



The following management area prescription 
summary will be used as a basis to implement the 
Land Tenure Adjustment and Access Program. 

Similkameen Management Area: Acquire 
permanent access to Palmer Mountain, with rights for 
the public, to facilitate management. Conduct the 
adjustment of land pattern by exchange to reduce 



cost of property line determination and to enhance 
multiple use management. 

Acquire nonagricuttural lands along the Similkameen 
River and lands adjacent to the Split Rock Recreation 
Site at Palmer Lake to improve fishing access. 

Conconully Management Area: Conduct the 
adjustments of land pattern by exchange to reduce 
cost of property line determination. 

Obtain access for recreation activities through land 
exchanges or easement acquisition as opportunities 
arise. 

Acquire identified key parcels of deer winter range to 
facilitate management. 

Jameson Lake Management Area: Acquire 
public access through easement purchase or land 
exchange to the Sulphur Canyon area to allow 
recreation use of the management unit. 

Douglas Creek Management Area: Acquire 
access (either by exchange or through easements) to 
the Rock Island Creek land parcels to enhance 
recreation. 

Consolidate ownership to enhance multiple use 
management. 

Acquire state grazing land in grazing allotments 0774, 
0775, 0778, 0779, 0782, and 0785 to enhance 
management and certain private high potential 
grazing land where present ownership is inhibiting 
establishment of grazing systems that would increase 
forage production and enhance multiple use values. 

Saddle Mountains Management Area: Acquire 
1 ,500 acres of state grazing land in grazing 
allotments 808 and 81 to enhance management and 
1 3,000 acres of Burlington Northern land to enhance 
multiple use of the management area. 

Rattlesnake Hills Management Area: Acquire 
access by pursuing land exchanges to consolidate 
public land in orderto facilitate recreation manage- 
ment objectives. Acquire access with rights to the 
public if land exchanges do not provide public access 
by 1990. 

Rock Creek Management Area: Conduct land 
exchange to acquire crucial habitat areas and to 
enhance recreational management opportunities. 
Acquire access for management and recreational 
purposes. 

North Ferry Management Area: Adjust land 
patterns by exchange to reduce cost of survey and 
property line determination and to enhance multiple 
use. Acquire permanent access to all public lands to 
enhance forest management and multiple use. 



15 



North Stevens Management Area: Adjust land 
pattern by exchange to reduce cost of survey and 
property line determination. Acquire permanent 
access to all forested public lands to enhance multiple 
use management. 

Huckleberry Mountains Management Area: 

Adjust land pattern by exchange to reduce cost of 
survey and property line determination to consolidate 
landownership into more manageable blocks, to 
maintain or enhance crucial wildlife habitat areas or 
recreation opportunities. 

Juniper Forest Management Area: Acquire the 
private land within the Juniper Dunes Wilderness 
Area and the existing ACEC to provide protection for 
the natural values of the area. 

Acquire access with rights for the public to the 
management area. 

Acquire 5,1 20 acres of private land to enhance 
grazing management and other multiple use 
opportunities. 

Badger Slope Management Area: Acquire 
privately owned grazing land in grazing allotments 
0540 and 0544 where present ownership is inhibiting 
the establishment of grazing systems that would 
increase forage production. 

Acquire riparian areas forthe purpose of improving 
waterfowl and upland game habitat. 

Scattered Tracts Management Area: Conserve 
the potential of rangeland, wildlife and fishing habitat, 
woodlands, and recreation opportunities. Implement 
this management emphasis through land tenure 
adjustments such as exchanges, interagency 
agreements, special area designations, withdrawals, 
easements, and leases. Limit sales to adjust land 
tenure where no special resource values require 
protection to solve specific use problems. Enter into 
interagency agreements with the WSDG, WSDNR, or 
USFS to enhance management efficiency. 

Implementation Priority 
High 

Land tenure adjustments to consolidate or otherwise 
promote the efficient management of the public land 
resources, protect and improve valuable wildlife 
habitat, enhance recreational opportunities, and 
provide access to public lands; issuance of rights-of- 
way, small tract leases, and/or other leases permits. 

Medium 

Sales. 

Low 

Desert Land Entries 



Monitoring 

The lands program will be monitored on a yearly 
basis to determine if the program objectives are being 
met. These objectives include, but are not limited to, 
monitoring progress in the following areas: land 
tenure adjustments in the management areas, 
cooperative management agreements district wide, 
access to public lands, trespass abatement, 
withdrawal revocations, issuance of rights-of-way, 
issuance of recreation and public purpose patents, 
land sales, and land exchange. 

Support 

Support will be needed for conducting land appraisal 
reports to estimate the value of public land identified 
for disposal. Support will also be needed to conduct 
mineral, cultural, and threatened and endangered 
species resource evaluations. These evaluations will 
contribute to the environmental analyses on land 
disposals. Cadastral surveys to delineate specific 
tracts may be needed in some cases. 

Recreation Management 

Recreational activities and visual resources will be 
evaluated as part of the specific activity plans and will 
be evaluated to determine their appropriateness in 
relation to the land use allocations made in the 
Resource Management Plan. BLM management of 
cultural and historic resources emphasize protection 
and preservation. See the standard operating 
procedures in Appendix C. 

The evaluation of visual resources will consider the 
significance of proposed projects and the visual/ 
scenic sensitivity of the affected area. Stipulations will 
be attached as appropriate to assure compatibility of 
projects with management objectives for visual 
resources. Note the definitions and management 
guidelines forthe five visual resource management 
classes in Appendix C. 

Special Management Areas 

Nine of the original ten areas proposed for ACEC 
designation are designated upon adoption of this 
RMP. In addition to the proposed ACECs this ROD 
reaffirms the designations of the three existing 
ACECs. Management plans for these ACECs will be 
completed or revised within two years (see Tables 2- 
3). 

As additional areas are identified for special 
consideration, appropriate interim management 
protection measures will be developed, adopted, and 
implemented until such a time when formal 
designation could be made in an RMP amendment or 
revision. 

The proposed Catherine Creek and Rowland Lake 
ACEC is no longer under BLM administration. This 
area was included in the recently designated 
Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. All of 



16 



Table 2-3 Areas of Critical Environmental Concern' 



Area Name 



Hot Lakes 
Brewster Roost 
Colockum Creek 
Rock Island Canyon 
Yakima River Cliffs 

& Umtanum Ridge 
McCoy Canyon 
Earthquake Point 
Roosevelt 
Sentinel Slope 
Webber Canyon 
Yakima and Columbia 

River Islands 
Juniper Forest 



Value 



Merimictic Lake 
Bald Eagle Winter Roost 
Fed. Cand. T or E & S species 
5 Fed. Cand. T or E & S species 
Fed. Cand. T or E & S species 

2 Federal Candidate Plants 
Federal Candidate Plant 
Federal Candidate Plant 
Federal Candidate Plant 
Paleontologic Resources 
Crucial Nesting Habitat 

Nesting Habitat 



County 
Located 



Acres 



Okanogan 


80 


Douglas 


200 


Chelan 


80 


Douglas 


1,200 


Yakima, Kittitas 


320 


Benton 


100 


Chelan 


40 


Klickitat 


80 


Grant 


200 


Benton 


40 


Benton; Franklin 


640 



Franklin 



5,540 



*AII of the public land administered by the BLM that falls within the boundaries of the Columbia River Gorge 
National Scenic Area have been remanded to the Secretary of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service for administration. 
The proposed Catherine Creek and Rowland Lake ACEC falls within this area. Therefore, it is no longer under 
BLM administration. 



the public lands located in this area are now managed 
by the U.S. Forest Service. 

Off-Road Vehicles (ORV) 

Public land within areas identified as open to vehicle 
use would generally remain available for such use 
without restrictions. Exceptions may be authorized 
and implemented at any time after consideration of 
the following criteria: (1 ) the need to promote user 
enjoyment and minimize use conflicts; (2) the need to 
minimize damage to soil, watershed, vegetation, or 
other resource values; (3) the need to minimize 
harassment of wildlife or significant degradation of 
wildlife habitat; and (4) the need to promote user 
safety. 

Public land within areas identified as restricted to 
vehicle use will receive priority attention during 
activity planning. Specific roads, trails, or portions of 
such areas may be closed seasonally or yearlong to 
all or specified types of vehicle use (see Table 2-4) . 

Since there were no changes in the ORV 
designations from the Final RMP/EIS to this ROD, 
maps were not included. However, maps identifying 
these designations are available upon request. 



Implementation 



The following management area prescription 
summary will be used as a basis to implement the 
Recreation Program. 

Similkameen Management Area: Develop a 
recreation management plan for the Chopaka Lake 
camping area to improve facilities benefiting hunting 
and fishing activities. Close 5,598 acres to ORV use; 
restrict ORV use on 5,828 acres to designated roads 
and trails; restrict ORV use on another 1 ,270 acres to 
designated roads and trails from November 1 5 to 
March 1 . Designate 1 6,204 acres open to ORV use. 

Conconully Management Area: Restrict ORV use 
on 2,670 acres to designated roads and trails from 
November 15 to March 1 . Designate 8,830 acres as 
open to ORV use. 

Jameson Lake Management Area: Restrict ORV 
use in Sulphur Canyon to existing roads and trails. 
Manage the visual resources to maintain the existing 
visual quality standards. Restrict ORV use on 2,860 
acres to designated roads and trails. 

Douglas Creek Management Area: Prepare a 
recreation management plan for Douglas Creek with 
an emphasis on protecting the existing values rather 
than development. Restrict ORV use on 4,580 acres 
to designated roads and trails, and restrict ORV use 
on another 5,040 acres to designated roads and trails 
from February 1 5 to Junel . Keep the remaining 
public lands in the management area open to ORV 



17 



Table 2-4 Resource Management Plan ORV Designations 


Management Area 


Priority for 
Implementing 

ORV 
Designations 


Acres 
Open 


Acres 

Restricted 

Seasonally 

to Designated 

Roads and Trails 


Acres 

Permanently 

Restricted 

to Designated 

Roads and Trails 


Acres 
Closed to 
ORV Use 


Similkameen 


3 


16,204 


1,270 


5,828 


5,598' 


Conconully 


7 


8,830 


2,670 






Jameson Lake 


6 


800 




2,860 




Douglas Creek 


5 


12,380 


5,040 


4,580 




Saddle Mountains 


4 


4,310 




19,990 




Rattlesnake Hills 


N.A. 


24,735 








Badger Slope 


2 






7,680 


40 


Rock Creek 


8 






6,427 




North Ferry 


N.A. 


13,000 








North Stevens 


N.A. 


13,205 








Huckleberry Mountains 


N.A. 


1 1 ,269 








Juniper Forest 


1 


2,640 




7,340 


7,1402 


Scattered Tracts 


N.A. 


123,137 






6403 


Total 


N.A. 


230,500 


8,980 


54,705 


13,418 



' Includes the 5,518 acre Chopaka Mountain Wilderness Study Area and the Hot Lakes RNA/ACEC 
2 The 7, 140 acre Juniper Dunes Wilderness Area 
includes the Yakima and Columbia River Islands ACEC 



use and manage visual resources to maintain existing 
visual quality standards. 

Saddle Mountains Management Area: Restrict 
ORV use on 19,900 acres to designated roads and 
trails. Designate 4,31 acres as a casual use ORV 
area on the west end of Saddle Mountains and limit 
ORV use in other areas to designated roads and 
trails. Permit a maximum of three races per calendar 
year. Acquire access through easement acquisition or 
land exchange to key parcels for recreational 
rockhounding on Saddle Mountains and in the 
Johnson Creek area. 

Rattlesnake Hills Management Area: Develop 
an activity plan to manage rock collecting ORV use 
and hunting. Designate 24,735 acres open to ORV 
use. 

Rock Creek Management Area: Emphasize 
enhancement of the hunting and rock collection 



opportunities for the general public through the 
development of a recreation management plan. 
Restrict ORV use on 6,427 acres to designated roads 
and trails. 

North Ferry Management Area: Emphasize 
maintenance of recreation opportunities in key areas 
as identified through public input, and/or issues 
analyses. This may include land exchanges and 
development of recreation management plans for 
identified areas. Designate 13,000 acres open to 
ORV use. 

North Stevens Management Area: Emphasize 
maintenance of recreation opportunities in key areas 
as identified through public input and/or issues 
analysis. This may include land exchange and 
development of recreation management plans for 
identified areas. Designate 13,205 acres open to 
ORV use. 



18 



Huckleberry Mountains Management Area: 

Emphasize maintenance of improvement of 
recreation opportunities in key areas identified 
through previous planning, public input, and/or issues 
analyses. This may include land exchanges and 
development of recreation management plans for 
identified areas. Designate 1 1 ,269 acres open to 
ORVuse. 

Juniper Forest Management Area: Manage the 
existing 1 4,480 acre ACEC to facilitate protection of 
the existing natural, scientific, and cultural values. 
Fence the Juniper Dunes Wilderness boundary and 
monitor recreational use of the adjacent public lands 
to determine if additional restrictions are necessary to 
protect the wilderness values. Allow OR V use on 
designated roads and trails on 7,340 acres that 
remain outside the wilderness in the ACEC. ORV use 
is prohibited, by law, on the 7, 1 40 acres in the Juniper 
Dunes Wilderness. Designate 2,640 acres open to 
ORV use. Continue the study of ORV activities and 
raptor use of the area and develop a Recreation Plan 
by the end of FY 88 that provides for the long-term 
ORV management in the area and ensures protection 
of the wilderness and ACEC objectives. 

Badger Slope Management Area: Restrict ORV 
use to designated roads and trails on 7,680 acres and 
close 40 acres to ORV use. 

Scattered Tracts Management Area: Designate 
all 640 acres of the Columbia and Yakima River 
islands ACEC closed to ORV use. 

Implementation Priority 
High 

• Develop recreation management plans identified for 
the Similkameen, Douglas Creek, Rattlesnake Hills, 
and the Juniper Forest Management Areas. Develop 
ACEC Management Plans for all designated ACECs 
within two years of the ROD approval. 

• Identify the ORV restrictions within the management 
areas through the use of signs. 

Medium 

• Develop new recreation facilities identified through 
the recreation management plans. 

Monitoring 

Recreational and visual resources will be monitored 
to determine trends or changes in land use. The 
monitoring tools will include the use of registration 
boxes and visitor use surveys to determine visitor use 
levels. Monitoring tools to determine surface 
disturbance attributed to recreation will include aerial 
photographs, and periodic soil and vegetation 
condition inventories. All of these tools will be used to 
establish base line data which will be used to 
determine the limits of acceptable change or to 
identify the need to improve recreational facilities. The 
target areas for this monitoring effort will be 



developed recreation sites, roads, parking areas, trail 
heads, trails, and potential picnic areas and 
campsites. 

Support 

Support will also be needed to conduct cultural, and 
threatened and endangered species resource 
evaluations in association with the issuance of special 
recreation permits. Acquisition of legal access to 
public land will be needed to open up areas for 
recreational purposes. Cadastral survey would be 
needed to delineate specf ic tracts of public land. 
Some engineering support will be needed to aid in 
design and layout of access roads. 

Wildlife and Fish Habitat 
Management 

General 

Fish and wildlife habitat management objectives will 
continue to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis as 
a part of project level planning (for example: timber 
sale plans, grazing management plans, recreation 
management plans, rights-of-way applications, and so 
forth). Note the standard design features and 
operation procedures in Appendix C. Evaluations will 
consider the significance of the proposed projects and 
the sensitivity of fish and wildlife habitats in the 
affected areas. Stipulations will be attached as 
appropriate to assure compatibility of projects with 
management objectives for fish and wildlife habitat. 
Protective fences will be constructed in riparian areas, 
and other habitat improvement projects will be 
implemented where necessary to stabilize and/or 
improve unsatisfactory or declining wildlife habitat 
condition. Such projects will be identified through 
habitat management plans or coordinated resource 
management activity plans. 



Riparian Habitat 



Management actions within riparian habitat areas, 
wetlands, and flood plains will include measures to 
preserve, protect, and restore natural functions, as 
defined by Executive Orders 1 1988 and 1 1990. 
Management techniques will be used to minimize the 
degradation of streambanks and the loss of riparian 
vegetation. Bridges and culverts will be designed and 
installed to maintain adequate fish passage. Roads 
and otherfacilities will be designed to avoid riparian 
areas to the extent that it is practicable. Riparian 
habitat needs will be taken into consideration when 
developing livestock grazing systems and pasture 
designs. 

A supplemental inventory evaluation of riparian 
habitat will be conducted on public lands within three 
(3) years from the time the RM P is adopted. Habitat 
vegetation potential and current condition will be 
assessed for all areas, and management guidelines 
and objectives will be developed. All high value and 
high potential habitats in less than good condition will 



19 



be managed through implementation of activity plans 
and projects (such as construction of protective 
fencing) to allow restoration of native vegetation, 
increase of plant vigor, and general habitat condition 
improvement. 

Seasonal Restrictions 

Seasonal restrictions will be applied to mitigate the 
impacts of human activities on important seasonal 
wildlife habitat. Some of the major types of important 
seasonal wildlife habitat are crucial deer winter range, 
bighorn sheep winter range and lambing grounds, 
mountain goat winter range and kidding grounds, 
sage and sharptail grouse leks, and raptor nesting 
habitat. 

Terrestrial Wildlife Habitat 

Sufficient forage and cover will be provided for wildlife 
on seasonal habitat to maintain existing population 
levels or target population levels as established by 
the WSDG. Forage and cover requirements will be 
incorporated into allotment management plans and 
will be specific to areas of primary wildlife use. 

Range improvements generally will be designed to 
achieve both wildlife and range objectives. Existing 
fences may be modified, and new fences will be built 
to allow wildlife passage. Water developments 
generally would not be established for livestock where 
significant conflicts over vegetation would result. 
Water will be provided when possible in allotments 
during seasonal periods of need for wildlife. 

Vegetation manipulation projects will be designed to 
minimize impact on wildlife habitat and to improve it 
whenever possible. The WSDG would have the 
opportunity to review all proposed actions involving 
vegetation manipulation projects. 

Wildlife reintroductions and fish stocking proposals 
would be evaluated, and recommendations would be 
made to the WSDG. 



Implementation 



The management area prescription summary will be 
used as a basis to implement the Wildlife and Fish 
Habitat Management Program. 

Similkameen Management Area: Develop a 
CRMP on Palmer Mountain to improve or maintain 
crucial mule deer winter range. Protect 6.5 stream 
miles with high value riparian habitats on Palmer 
Mountain, Little Chopaka Mountain, Ellemeham 
Mountain, American Butte, Kruger Mountain, and the 
shorelines of Chopaka Lake and the Similkameen 
River. 

Conconully Management Area: Identify and 
protect high value riparian habitats along 2.25 miles 
of Salmon Creek and 1 mile in Dry Coulee. 

Jameson Lake Management Area: Develop an 
HMP and acquire approximately 1 ,200 acres of 



nonagricultural lands for the purpose of maintaining or 
improving upland game nesting and wintering habitat. 
Protect riparian habitat in Sulphur Canyon. 

Douglas Creek Management Area: Expand 
existing HMP to cover the entire Douglas Creek 
Management Area. Improve wildlife habitat in the 
Douglas Creek riparian area by management of the 
plant coverthrough the existing Habitat Management 
Plan which includes planting of shrubs and grasses, 
control of noxious weeds, and exclusion of cattle 
grazing from specific areas. Protect and improve the 
condition of high value riparian habitat along Rock 
Island Creek (1 .5 miles), Sutherland Canyon (3 
miles), Skookumchuck Creek (1 mile), and 
Rattlesnake Creek (0.5 mile). 

Saddle Mountains Management Area: Protect 
and improve high value riparian habitat along 
Johnson Creek (1 mile) and six (6) miles of it's 
tributaries. 

Rattlesnake Hills Management Area: Develop 
an HMP to maintain or improve key species 
concentration areas. Identify and protect high value 
riparian habitat in Washout Canyon (1 mile). 

Rock Creek Management Area: Develop an 
HMP to emphasize enhancement of game species 
habitat. Protect and improve riparian habitat along 
Squaw Creek (1 .5 miles), Rock Creek (5 miles) and 
riparian areas acquired through land exchanges. 

North Ferry Management Area: Emphasize 
maintenance or improvement of key species habitat 
areas identified through previous planning, public 
input, and/or issues analyses. This may include land 
exchanges to facilitate protection of these areas and 
development of HMPs. Protect and improve riparian 
habitat on BLM administered land along 7 miles of 
perennial streams and the Kettle River. 

North Stevens Management Area: Protect and 
improve 4.5 miles of riparian habitat along perennial 
streams and the Columbia and Kettle Rivers. 

Huckleberry Mountains Management Area: 

Emphasize maintenance or improvement of key 
wildlife habitat areas, such as critical deerwinter 
range, identified through previous planning, public 
input, and/or issues analyses. This may include land 
exchanges to facilitate protection of these areas and 
development of HMPs. Protect and improve the 2.5 
miles of riparian habitat along perennial streams that 
cross public land. 

Juniper Forest Management Area: Implement 
the HMP to emphasize maintenance or improvement 
of raptor and upland game habitat. Allocate forage to 
livestock to minimize conflict with wildlife habitat 
management objectives. 

Badger Slope Management Area: Develop a 
CRMP for this area with provisions to improve and 



20 



protect raptor and upland game habitat. Develop an 
HMP on 1 ,000 acres of the area for the purpose of 
improving upland game habitat. Protect riparian 
habitat in Webber Canyon (2.5 miles) and protect and 
improve riparian habitat in Sec. 30, T. 9 N., R. 26 E. 

Scattered Tracts Management Area: Identify 
and protect valuable wildlife habitat through 
management of livestock, ORVs, and other resource 
uses. Protect and improve high potential riparian 
habitats. Inventory small acreages for high value 
riparian habitats. Develop and implement HMP for 
riparian habitat protection or enhancement. 

Implementation Priority 
High 

Actions taken through an HMP that affect riparian 
areas or threatened or endangered species habitat. 
Monitoring existing HMPs. Assessment of actions 
affecting wildlife habitat. Protection of unique or 
sensitive species habitat. 

Medium 

Complete statewide cooperative Sikes Act HMP. 
Monitor important habitat of other species such as 
mule deer, elk, pheasant and othergame and non- 
game species. 

Low 

Manage non-critical habitats with significant values. 

Monitoring 

Habitat management plans will be prepared prior to 
implementation of specific activities for habitat 
improvement. HMPs will contain sections on 
monitoring techniques for various activities. These will 
evaluate habitat condition and trend against resource 
objectives. 

Wildlife habitat monitoring will consist largely of 
recording repeated observations of the physical and 
biological habitat components being manipulated by 
an action. This may be as simple as using photo 
stations or as complicated as a complete ecological 
study. Each action will be monitored to assess degree 
of success or failure measured against management 
objectives. 

Monitoring priorities will follow general management 
priorities discussed previously. Each HMP will discuss 
and rank by priority monitoring efforts as part of the 
management scenario for a particular geographic 
area. 

Support 

Support and cooperation from the WSDG, private 
sportsmen's groups, and others will be an integral 
part of the habit management program. 



Internal support from Bureau specialists (i.e., lands, 
forestry, recreation, and range management) will also 
be required. 

Extensive coordination with other federal, state, 
private agencies, and groups will be carried out as 
needed during day-to-day program operation. 

Endangered, 
Threatened, or Sensitive 
Species Habitat 

Prior to any vegetation or ground disturbing manipu- 
lation projects, the BLM requires a survey of the 
project site for plants and animals listed or proposed 
for listing as threatened or endangered, ortheir 
critical habitats. 

For sensitive proposed, or candidate T/E species, it is 
Bureau policy to ensure that the crucial/essential 
habitats be considered (managed and/or conserved) 
in all management decisions to minimize the need for 
future listing by either Federal or state governments. 
Sensitive species will be accorded special 
management consideration as if they were officially 
listed pursuant to the Endangered Species Act of 
1 973. It may be determined by the District Manager, 
on a case-by-case basis, that verified data concerning 
a species is adequate to allow the planned action. If 
not, approval by the State Director is required before 
an action can proceed. 

It is BLM policy to maintain viable populations of 
proposed or sensitive species until such time as a 
final determination on the status of each species is 
made by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 
(USFWS). 

Activities will not be permitted or implemented in 
habitat important for listed threatened or endangered 
species, or for proposed, candidate, or State-listed 
sensitive species, if such activities are likely to 
jeopardize the existence of the species in the area in 
question. 

If BLM determines that a proposed action "may affect" 
the habitat or the T/E species in question, formal or 
informal consultation with FWS would be initiated per 
50 CFR, 402; ESA 1 973, as amended. 

An effort will be made to modify proposed actions that 
"may affect" habitat or species in order to achieve a 
"no affect" biological opinion from FWS. If the action 
cannot be adequately modified, it may be abandoned 
or relocated. 

Whenever possible, management activities in habitat 
for endangered, threatened, or sensitive species 
would be designed specifically to benefit those 
species through habitat improvement or protection. 

The Washington State Department of Game (WSDG) 
and Department of Natural Resources/Washington 



21 



Natural Heritage Program (WSDNR/WNHP) maybe 
consulted along with the USFWS priorto 
implementing projects that may affect habitat for state 
listed endangered, threatened, or sensitive species. 

Forest Management 

Manage 54,757 acres of commercial forest land 
within 7 of the 1 3 management areas for the 
commercial trees species (see Tables 2-5 and 2-6). 
This includes 41 ,443 acres available forfull timber 
production and 1 3,31 4 acres on which timber 
management practices and yields will be constrained 
for multiple use purposes. Major commercial tree 
species include Ponderosa pine, Douglas fir, Grand 
fir, Lodgepole pine Western larch, Engelmann spruce, 
and Western white pine. Management woodlands for 
forest products when consistent with other resource 
uses (Woodland is forest land which is not included in 
commercial forest land intensive timber production 
base and also includes all fragile non-suitable land, 
non-commercial forest land and non-suitable 
commercial forest land. Woodland forest products will 
only be sold from lands that are biologically capable 
of supporting a sustained yield of forest products). 

A harvest level of 3.98 MMbf annually is planned 
based on existing inventories; however, a sustainable 
harvest level will be calculated in 1 987 in conjunction 
with a forest inventory which is underway. The actual 
volume offered may be less than the full timber 
harvest potential, depending upon the numberof 



acres allocated to other uses and the operational 
constraints built into this land use plan in orderto 
meet multiple use objectives, especially critical wildlife 
forage and cover areas, streams identified as 
supporting fisheries, and areas of high visual 
sensitivity. Note the standard operating procedures 
and design features in Appendix C. 

Manage forest land to minimize losses or damage to 
commercial tree species from insects and disease. 
Develop road systems and manage for harvest of 
commercial tree species. 

Pre-commercially thin public forest land where 
feasible and when adequate funding allows. Slash will 
be removed near roads where it poses a potential fire 
hazard. The preferred method of disposing of slash 
will be with the use of prescribed fire. Heavy 
concentrations of standing dead and down material 
would be disposed of through a fuel wood sale 
program. 

The 1 ,71 acres of uncut forestland, identified in 
Table 2-7, will not be subject to timber harvest until an 
interdisciplinary team of BLM natural resource 
specialists evaluate the attributes of these parcels. 
Areas that are identified as possessing unique or 
important natural resource values will be set aside, 
and appropriate interim protective measures would be 
undertaken. This evaluation would be made within 
five years from the time the RMP is adopted. 



Table 2-5 Management Area Prescription/Derivation of Timber Production Base 
Acreage 


Management Areas 


Similkameen 


Conconully 


Rock Creek 


North Ferry 


North Stevens 


Huckleberry 
Mountains 


Scattered 
Tracts 


Total 


Total Forestland Acres 


8,353 


4,055 


748 


8,353 


12,858 


10,770 


6,620 


51,757 


Commercial Forest 
Non Commercial Forest 
(Woodlands) 
Non Operable 


6,108 
371 

1,874 


2,376 
951 

728 


748 






7,697 
5 

651 


12,321 
289 

248 


10,494 
63 

213 


5,815 
805 




45,559 
2,484 

3,714 


Multiple Use Set Aside 
Riparian 
Wildlife Habitat 
ACEC 


58 

230 




25 

99 




33 

108 




20 

82 




42 

165 




38 

147 




200 
788 
161 


416 

1,619 

161 


Lands Available for 
Restricted Management 
of Forest Products 


268 


115 


154 


96 


192 


173 


922 


1,920 


Lands Available for Intensive 
Intensive Management of 
Forest Products 


5,552 


2,137 


453 


7,499 


11,922 


10,136 


3,744 


41,443 


Approximate Decedal Timber 
Harvest Level (MMbF) 


5.33 


2.05 


0.44 


7.2 


11.45 


9.74 


3.59 


39.8 


Approximate Sustainable 
Decedal Harvest Level 
(cords) (10) 



























22 



Table 2-6 Forest Management Practices and Land Use Allocations Under the 
Plan 

Proposed 
RMP 



Intensive Timber 

Production Base (acres) 44,443 

Decade 1 Harvest 

Total Million bd. ft. 39.8 

Total Million cu. ft. 6.5 

Treatments 

Transportation System (miles/acres) 
New Construction 39/76 

Reconstruction 37/72 

Timber Harvest (acres) 1 6,125 

Timber Harvesting Methods (acres) 
Cable 3,275 

Tractor 2,850 

Site Preparation (acres) 

Slash Disposal 
Broadcast Burn 152 

Pile and Burn 958 

Lop and Scatter 5,015 

Note: These figures are estimates based upon the current 5-year timber sale plan. These estimates were made 
to facilitate impact analysis highlighting differences between alternatives. Although actual acreages may vary with 
implementation the relationship between alternatives is expected to remain unchanged. 

'Includes both partial cut and clearcut areas. Clearcut acreages are primarily for roads, landings, blowdown 
salvage, etc., and usually average less than 1 % of total harvest acres. 



Table 2-7 Uncut Timber Stands (40 Acres in Size or Larger) 

Management Area Legal Description Acres 

Similkameen T.39N., R.27E.,sec. 17SE1/4SW1/4 40 

T.39N., R.26E.,sec.30E1/2E1/2 100 

T. 40 N., R. 25 E., sec. 32 E1/2NW1/4, W1/2NE1/4 70 

North Stevens T.39N., R.40E.,sec. 21 E1/2E1/2 130 

sec.22S1/2N1/2,S1/2 400 

Sec.23S1/2NW1/4,SW1/4 200 

sec.24NE1/4 120 

sec.26N1/2NW1/4,NE1/4SW1/4 100 

sec.31S1/2NW1/4 80 

T.40N..R.41 E.,sec. 28Sl/2NW1/4,N1/2SW1/4 140 

sec.29E1/2SE1/4 80 

Scattered Tracts T.38N., R.43E.,sec. 18SE1/4NW1/4 40 

T. 39 N., R. 43 E., sec. 2 E1/2NW1/4 40 

sec. 21 S1/2NE1/4 50 

T.40N., R.43E.,sec. 26NW1/4 120 

Total Acres 1 710 



23 



Implementation 



Activity plans will define the resources for the 
planning area, state specific management objectives, 
specify planned actions, coordinate various resource 
values, and identify harvest levels, cutting cycles, and 
silvicultural practices for the commercial forest or 
woodland resource. 

Timber and fuel wood sales, timber stand 
improvement (e.g., thinning), reforestation, slash 
disposal, and road construction are examples of 
specific actions proposed in activity plans. Manuals 
and policy will offer other specific guidance for 
implementation of these actions. Environmental 
analyses and forest plans will further identify project 
implementation and mitigation measures. 

Commercial forest and woodland products will be 
offered for sale. Competitive bidding will be the 
preferred method for selling commercial timber. 
Fuelwood, posts, poles, and boughs will be sold to 
the general public (see Table 2-6). 

Implementation Priority 
High 

Revise and update existing timber management plan 
to reflect management direction of the resource 
management plan. 

Medium 

Prepare woodland management plan for large tracts 
of manageable woodland. Factors considered when 
determining the priority of management areas 
include: 

• Accessibility to product and market; 

• Demand for woodland products; 

• Opportunities to complement other resources. 

Low 

Designate selected areas for post, pole, and fuel 
wood permit areas in lieu of preparation of woodland 
management plan. 



Monitoring 



The basic process of monitoring for forest practices 
involves on-site inspection of the project. Generally, a 
pre-work conference is conducted to familiarize the 
contractoror purchaserwith the project area, contract 
requirements, and other project specifics. During the 
project life, periodic inspections of the work 
performance and progress are conducted by the 
forester. At the end of the project, a final inspection is 
generally conducted to check for work quality and 
proper completion of all contract requirements. An 
assessment of the project is made at that point, and 
recommendations for amending future like projects 
are made to ensure future successes and 
streamlining. 



Support 

Cadastral survey and some engineering support will 
be needed to aid design and layout of timber sales 
and access roads. Fire management support will be 
needed for management of natural fire in meeting 
forest management resource objectives. Acquisition 
of legal access to public land will be needed to open 
areas for commercial forest land management. Legal 
access to public land to open areas for fuel wood will 
be acquired only if the access also benefits other 
resource values. 

Range Program Summary 
Grazing Management 

Continue present management on 1 82,424 acres 
(374 allotments) of public land to benefit livestock and 
wildlife. Existing structural and nonstructural range 
improvements will be maintained throughout the 
planning area. These allotments include the Maintain 
(M) and Custodial (C) category allotments. 

The M allotments are usually those where satisfactory 
management has already been achieved through 
conservation plans, coordinated resource 
management plans, or cooperative agreements with 
adjoining landowners. 

Most of the C allotments are unfenced, small tracts 
which are intermingled with much larger acreages of 
non-BLM rangelands, thus limiting the BLM's 
management opportunities. 

During the analysis of the management situation of 
these lands, it became evident that a portion of the C 
Allotments have a potential for improved 
management to modify ecological conditions for 
livestock forage, wildlife habitat, and/or watershed 
protection. However, the costs of fencing these 
parcels and developing water so that they can be 
intensively managed for livestock forage are 
prohibitively high. These allotments do have a 
potential for more intensive management if 
cooperation with the grazing lessee and other 
landowners in the management of all lands in the 
allotment can be obtained or if BLM can gain 
sufficient manageability by acquiring land within the 
allotment through land exchanges. Once cooperation 
or manageability is attained, those respective 
allotments may move to the I category. Therefore, the 
Custodial category was further divided into C1 and C2 
allotments. The C1 designation will allow, through 
increased cooperation or improved manageability 
through land acquisition, for improved management 
and BLM investment in range improvements. 
Allotments categorized as C2 would remain under 
custodial management. 

Implement range improvements such as fences, 
pipelines, water developments, springs, seedings, 
and brush control actions in Improve (I) category 
allotments to benefit range and riparian habitat 



24 



conditions. This would affect a total of 50,385 acres of 
public land in the 1 6 1 category allotments. 

The I allotments are usually areas which have a 
potential for resource improvement where BLM 
controls enough land to implement changes. Other I 
allotments have ongoing intensive management 
planning efforts which are being cooperatively 
developed by all landowners in the allotment. (See 
Table 2-8 and Appendix D for a summary and listing 
of allotment categorization.) 



Develop or revise 1 6 management plans (AMPs or 
CRMPs) on I category allotments and in cooperation 
with the grazing lessees and other interested parties. 
Each allotment's proposed range development 
program was subjected to a Rangeland Investment 
Analysis. This analysis process was used to design 
and evaluate the economic efficiency of various 
combinations of range improvements and 
management actions. Table 2-9 displays proposed 
range projects for the I category allotments. See 
Appendix C for a description of standard design 
features for range improvements. 



Table 2-8 


Summary of Allotment Categorization 














Category 




Number 






Acres 






Existing Authorized 
Use AUMs 

4,267 

5,691 
11,728 

8,387 



30,073 




Maintain 
Improve 
Custodial C1 
Custodial C2 
Unallotted 
Totals 




36 
16 
79 

259 


390 






31,312 
50,385 
88,776 
62,336 
74,794 
307,603 








Table 2-9 


Range Improvements by Allotment (1 Category Allotments Only) 






Management 
Area 


Allotment 
No. 


Seeding 
(Acres) 


Brush 
Control 
(Acres) 


Fence 
(Miles) 


Sprin 

Develo 

ments (I 1 


a 

p- Pipelines 
lo.) Miles 








Catchment! 
(No.) 

3 



3 


Cattle 

i guard 

(No.) 



2 
4 


6 


Stock 
s Tanks 
(No.) 


3 
3 
2 

8 


Wells 
(No.) 


Similkameen 
Subtotal 


0701 
0704 
0705 
0707 


47 



47 
94 










1.5 

3.5 
0.0 
2.0 
7.0 




3 
3 

2 
8 










Conconully 
Subtotal 


0735 
0737 













2.0 
0.0 
2.0 




1 
1 





















1 

1 








Douglas Creek 


0778 








5.0 


1 




1 








2 





Saddle 
Mountain 

Subtotal 


0806 
0808 


593 



593 




167 
167 


2.5 

5.0 
7.5 









0.5 
3.0 
3.5 













2 
2 

4 







Badger 
Slope 

Subtotal 


0540 
0544 


257 



257 







5.0 
2.0 
7.0 


2 

1 
3 




3 

3 













3 
1 
4 







North 
Stevens 


0683 








1.0 


1 













1 





Juniper 
Forest 

Subtotal 


0535 
0536 














0.5 
0.0 
0.5 

























1 

1 
2 




1 
1 


Scattered 
Tracts 

Subtotal 


0721 
0846 












0.5 
1.5 
2.0 




1 
1 




0.5 
0.0 
0.5 













2 

1 

3 







Grand Total 




944 


167 


32.0 


15 




8.0 


3 


6 


25 


1 



25 



Livestock grazing administrative functions will 
continue. This includes the issuance of grazing 
leases, processing lease transfers, establishing and 
interpreting range monitoring studies, conducting field 
examinations, supervising allotments, processing 
trespass actions, making public contacts, and 
completing benefit/cost analysis studies for proposed 
range improvement projects. Available funding for 
range improvements and structures will generally be 
expended in the following priority based on allotment 
categorization: (1) Improvement allotments; (2) 
Maintain allotments; (3) Custodial allotments. Those 
allotments in the Improve category, where a need for 
adjustments in livestock grazing capacity is identified 
in this plan, will receive the highest priority for 
monitoring and generally the highest priority for 
"Allotment Management Plan" preparation (if 
applicable) and installation of range improvements. 
Note that recategorization of allotments, particularly 
Custodial-1 into Improve is quite possible. 
Recategorization, rangeland program progress and 
other relevant information will be reported to the 
public through published periodic Rangeland Program 
Summary updates. 



Implementation 



Implementing the livestock grazing portion of this plan 
will require several separate actions that overlap in 
time, some of which are underway. These actions 
include: allotment recategorization; development of 
AMPs/CRMPs; monitoring of range conditions and 
trend; determination of stocking levels; forage use 
decisions; and monitoring to determine if selective 
management criteria are being fulfilled. 

Implementation Priority 
High 

• Implement CRMPs/AMPs on allotments with 
partially completed AMPs/CRMPs. 

• Implement CRMPs/AMPs on Improve category 
allotments. 

• Monitor Improve category allotments to establish 
stocking rates and evaluate the effects of intensive 
management. 

• Issue grazing decisions for Improve category 
allotments where adjustments in stocking rates are 
negotiated with the lessee. 

Medium 

• Monitor the effects of livestock grazing upon 
Maintain category allotments. 

• Implement CRMPs on C1 category allotments. 

Low 

• Monitor the effects of livestock grazing upon C 
category allotments. 



Monitoring 

The effects of implementation will be monitored and 
evaluated on a periodic basis over the life of the plan. 
The general purposes of this monitoring and 
evaluation will be to accomplish the following: 

1 . To determine if an action is fulfilling the purpose, 
need, and objectives for which it was designed or if 
there is a need for modification or termination of an 
action; 

2. To discover unanticipated and/or unpredictable 
effects; 

3. To determine if mitigation measures are working as 
prescribed; 

4. To ensure that decisions are being implemented 
and scheduled; 

5. To provide continuing evaluation of consistency 
with state and local plans and programs; 

6. To provide for continuing comparison of plan 
benefits versus costs, including social, economic, 
and environmental; and 

7. To determine livestock stocking levels. 

A document, entitled "Rangeland Monitoring in 
Oregon and Washington," has been developed and 
adopted as a guidance document. This document 
provides a framework and minimum standards for 
choosing the timing and study methods to collect the 
information needed to issue and implement specific 
management decisions which affect the grazing 
management, watershed, wildlife, and threatened 
and endangered species programs. Copies of this 
document are available upon request from the 
Spokane District and Wenatchee Resource Area 
Office 

Forthe grazing management program, highest priority 
for monitoring will be focused on the Improve (I) 
category allotments. Monitoring studies will be 
conducted annually for forage utilization, actual use 
(livestock numbers and periods of use), and climate. 
Vegetative trend studies were established and 
recorded in 1986. The trend studies will be recorded 
every five years (at minimum) after initial establishment 
to detect changes in the vegetal community. After 
five years of data collection, results will be analyzed 
and evaluated for each of the Improve category 
allotments. Where adjustments in stocking rates, 
seasons of use, and/or grazing systems are needed 
to achieve the objectives of the RMP and AMPs, the 
needed adjustments will be made through 
agreements with the grazing lessees or by decisions 
where necessary. The allotments will also be 
monitored beyond these five years to make 
adjustments as necessary. If it becomes apparent that 
objectives are being achieved, the I category 
allotments may be reclassified to the Maintain (M) 
category. 

M category allotments will receive less intensive 
monitoring to insure that management continues to 



26 



be satisfactory. Minimum levels of monitoring will 
include: annual collection of actual use and climatic 
data, collection of utilization data every three years, 
and reading of trend studies every ten years. If 
monitoring indicates that unexpected adverse impacts 
are occurring, the allotment(s) may be reclassified to 
the I category and corrective management actions 
taken. 

Custodial (C) category allotments will receive the 
least intensive monitoring. At a minimum, monitoring 
will include annual collection of climatic data and 
completion of trend studies on a ten-year schedule. If 
the analysis of monitoring data indicate a potential for 
improved management and/or critical resource values 
which are being threatened by livestock grazing, BLM 
will reclassify the allotment into the I category and 
intensify its management. 

Support 

Fire management support will be required for project 
layout, design, and implementation for vegetative 
manipulation through prescribed fire. There would be 
a support need for survey and design features for 
range improvement and vegetative manipulation 
projects, and benefit/cost analyses forthose range 
improvements (see Table 2-9). Water rights will be 
secured for water developments. Coordination would 
occurwith lessees and affected parties on livestock 
manipulation and development or refinement of 
management plans. 

Ongoing Management 
irams 



Progi 



Other ongoing BLM resource management programs 
and actions discussed in the proposed plan will 
continue. This section briefly describes these 
programs and management actions to eliminate 
confusion regarding their status relevant to the RMP. 

Soil, Water, and Air 
Management 

The inventory and evaluation of soil, water, and air 
resources on public lands will continue. Soils will be 
managed to maintain productivity and to minimize 
erosion. Corrective actions will take place, where 
practicable, to resolve erosive conditions. Water 
sources necessary to meet BLM program objectives 
will be developed and filed on according to applicable 
state and federal laws and regulations. Water quality 
of perennial streams will continue to be monitored, 
and climatological data will continue to be gathered. 

Noxious Weed Control 

Infestations of noxious weeds are known to occur on 
some of the BLM lands. The most common noxious 
weeds are diffuse knapweed, spotted knapweed, 
Russian knapweed, and yellow star thistle. Methods 
of controlling would be proposed and subjected to site- 
specific environmental analyses. Control methods 



would not be considered unless the weeds are 
confined to the BLM lands or efforts are coordinated 
with adjoining infested, non-BLM lands. Proper 
grazing management will be emphasized after control 
to minimize possible reinfestation of weeds from 
neighboring lands. 

Utility and Transportation 
Corridors 

All public land will be available and open for utility and 
transportation corridor development except the Hot 
Lakes RNA/ACEC, the Brewster Bald Eagle Roost 
and Juniper Forest ACECs, the Chopaka Mountain 
WSA, and the Juniper Dunes Wilderness Area as 
shown on Maps 4 and 5. Corridors have been 
identified and designated on BLM lands in 
Washington (see Map 2). Corridor widths vary but are 
minimum of 200 feet. Additional corridors will be 
considered on a case-by-case basis. Applicants will 
be encouraged to locate new facilities within existing 
corridors to the extent possible. 

The remaining ACECs will be designated as 
avoidance areas. Rights-of-way in those ACECs will 
only be permitted after all other alternative routes 
have been analyzed or if the corridor's development 
would not produce irreversible impacts to the 
resources being protected by the designations. All 
proposals identified by the Western Utility Group have 
been reviewed. 

Withdrawal Review 

BLM policy is to minimize the acreage of public land 
withdrawn from mining and mineral leasing and to 
replace existing withdrawals with rights-of-way, 
leases, permits, or cooperative agreements, where 
applicable, over the next six years. Approximately 
1 40,000 acres of land administered by otherfederal 
agencies will be reviewed by BLM. This review of 
other agency withdrawals will be completed by 1 991 . 

If the withdrawal review process determines that a 
withdrawal is no longer needed, or should be 
modified, BLM will recommend that the withdrawal be 
revoked or modified in whole or in part. Upon 
revocation, part or all of the lands may revert to BLM 
management. Reverted lands will be managed in 
accordance with this RMP. No new BLM withdrawals 
are proposed. New withdrawal requests by other 
agencies will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis 
weighing the agencies' and public's needs with the 
RMP. 

Trespass Abatement 

Unauthorized uses of public land will be resolved 
either through termination, authorization by lease or 
permit, or sale. Decisions will be based on (1 ) the 
type and significance of improvements involved; (2) 
conflicts with other existing or potential resource 
values and uses; and (3) unauthorized use being 
intentional or unintentional. 



27 



^y^s^-x^-a,;,;; 



ijinaiv"'it toiv.;-^r-™-j.;* ^; 



Unauthorized use will generally be terminated 
immediately. However, because of the various 
statutes of limitation which require that suit be brought 
within a certain period of time., it is necessary to 
process trespass cases by priorities. Criminal cases 
are to be processed ahead of civil cases, and cases 
of higher values ahead of ones of lower values. With 
this in mind, normal priorities are: 

A. Current ongoing trespasses. 

B. Cases less than one-year old. 

C. Cases over three years of age in which prospects 
for settlement are good. 

D. Cases between one and three years old. 

E. Continuing unauthorized use which has been 
occurring over long periods (Occupancy). 

Temporary permits may be issued to provide short- 
term authorization, unless the situation warrants 
immediate abatement and restoration of the land. It is 
Bureau policy to collect trespass damages for the 
entire unauthorized use period. 



Fire Managemi 



The Spokane District will continue fire suppression 
activities. Fire management plans for the 
management areas will be prepared. These plans will 
identify the levels of suppression, necessary to meet 
fire management objectives. They will take into 
consideration resource values, public concern and 
safety, private, and/or public impacts, and 
intermingled landownership at the activity planning 
level. Prescribed fire planning will be coordinated with 
adjacent landowners. Fire management standard 
operating procedures are summarized in Appendix C. 
Fire suppression and management history are 
summarized in Appendix E. 

Mineral Resources 

The BLM exclusively manages 307,523 acres and 
mineral estate, and 706,285 acres (all) of reserved 
Federal mineral estate in Washington. The BLM also 
has responsibilities on approximately 2.3 million acres 
of Indian lands in eastern Washington, and 
approximately 11.1 million acres of other Federal 
lands such as those lands managed by the Bureau of 
Reclamation, Department of Defense, Atomic Energy 
Commission, and U.S. Forest Service. 

Other federal agencies administer the surface 
resources on the remaining lands. Withdrawals or 
restrictions on mineral development of these lands 
depend on legislation, the mission of the agency, and 
each agency's recommendations to the Bureau. The 
Bureau periodically reviews withdrawals and 
participates in development of other agency land 
management plans (e.g., U.S. Forest Service) and, 
where appropriate, seeks to ensure that the public 
lands remain open and available for mineral 



exploration and development. Acquired lands are 
technically available for leasing, but the Bureau can 
only lease these lands if the surface management 
agency consents. 

BLM's responsibilities vary considerably when other 
agencies are involved, depending mainly on whether 
or not the lands are open to mineral entry and the 
type of minerals involved. For example, if the lands 
are open to leasing, the BLM is responsible for 
inspection and enforcement activities on oil and gas 
drilling operations. BLM also works with the surface 
agency prior to issuing permits for such operations. If 
the lands are closed to mineral entry (e.g., National 
Park Service), the only operations allowed may be 
those which predated the withdrawal. BLM's role on 
these lands is limited to record keeping, adjudication 
of new applications, and some involvement on the 
few older operations which exist. 

Leasable Minerals 

Leasable minerals will continue to be made available 
on most of the land where the BLM manages the 
surface and mineral estate. No changes will be made 
in existing leases, although impacts on other 
resources will be considered in operating plans. New 
restrictions or changes in lease stipulations will apply 
prior to reissuing leases and to areas not presently 
leased. 

Areas closed to mineral leasing after expiration of 
existing leases include the 7,140 acre Juniper Dunes 
Wilderness Area and the 80 acres of public lands 
within the Hot Lakes Research Natural Area ACEC. 

About 287,225 acres of public land will be open to 
exploration, subject to standard lease requirements 
and stipulations. Note the standard operating 
procedures in Appendix C. 

A restrictive no surface occupancy (NSO) stipulation 
for fluid minerals exploration and development will be 
maintained on 1 3,1 58 acres of public lands in the 
planning area. These lands include the Chopaka 
Mountain Wilderness Study Area, the Yakima and 
Columbia River Islands ACEC, and Webber Canyon 
ACEC (See Table 2-1 0). Exceptions to the NSO may 
be allowed. When leases are issued with the NSO, 
the following criteria for exception will be included in 
the stipulation: 

(1) Evidence of exploration or development activities 
would be substantially unnoticeable after reclamation 
has been completed. 

(2) All activities involving exploration would use 
existing roads to the fullest extent possible. 

(3) Any proposed exploratory drilling pad or road 
construction for access to a drilling site would be 
located to avoid canyon slopes and areas of high 
visibility. In these areas, roads anddrilling sites would 



28 



be fully rehabilitated and restored as nearly as 
possible to original contours. 

Implementation 
Locatable Minerals 

Areas not specifically withdrawn from mineral entry 
will continue to be open under the mining laws to help 
meet the demand for minerals. Mineral exploration 
and development on public land will be regulated 
under 43 CFR 3809 to prevent unnecessary and 
undue land degradation. Note the standard operating 
procedures in Appendix C. No new mineral 
withdrawals are proposed in this plan. The Bureau will 
recommend that the existing protective withdrawals 
on the Hot Lakes RNA and the Juniper Dunes 
Wilderness Area be retained. 

Salable Minerals 

Salable minerals, including common varieties of sand, 
gravel, and stone, will continue to be made available 
for local governments and the general public. The 
salable mineral program involves numerous pits and 
quarries where State and County road departments 
obtain rock for road surfacing material. Overthe 
previous ten years approximately 1 .9 million cubic 
yards of material have been removed from 21 sites in 
eastern Washington for these purposes. New material 
sites may be developed as needed if they are 
consistent with the protection of other resource 
values. 



All public lands are available for recreational mineral 
collection unless specific minerals are subject to prior 
rights, such as mining claims. No areas are withdrawn 
from the mining laws as recreational mineral 
collecting sites. 

Reserved Federal Mineral 
Estate 

The reserved Federal mineral estate will continue to 
be available for mineral development to the extent 
allowed by the laws and regulations governing the 
particular reservations. Standard stipulations and 
procedures will apply for mineral leasing operations. 

Section 209(a) of FLPMA requires that the United 
States retain ownership of the mineral estate in most 
cases. Where the surface is orwill be in non-Federal 
ownership, the mineral interest owned by the United 
States may be conveyed to the surface owner in 
accordance with Section 209(b) of FLPMA if: 

(1) There are no known mineral values in the land, or 

(2) The reservation of the mineral rights in the United 
States is interfering with or precluding appropriate 
non-mineral development of the land where such 
development is a more beneficial use of the land than 
mineral development. 

All land tenure adjustments will consider the effect on 
the mineral estate. Few lands are expected to meet 
the criteria for disposal of mineral estate. 



Table 2-10 Mineral Leasing Direction Under the Plan 

Public Land Open to Development with Standard Stipulations 
Open to Development with Restrictive Stipulations* 

Closed to Leasing/or Will Be Closed to 
Leasing Upon Termination of Current Leases 

Reserved Federal Mineral Estate 

Open to Leasing With Standard Stipulations 

Totals 



287,225 
13,158 

7,220 

706,285 
1,013,888 



29% 
1 .3% 

0.7% 

70% 
100% 



(Restrictions or changes in lease stipulations would apply only to areas not presently leased or areas presently 
leased where leases are renewed.) 



29 



30 



Appendix A 

Cooperative Agreement Summary 



Cistern Maintenance 


05-24-67 


NA 


NA 


Water Imp. 
and Cover 


Rattlesnake 
Hills near 










Plantings 


Yakima 




Colockum 


12-23-67 


1,282.07 


21,120.00 


Game Range 


T.19N. 


, R.22E 




07-12-67 


1,935.15 


17,920.00 


Game Range 


T. 17N. 


, R.21 E 




03-18-68 








T. 19 N. 
T.18N. 


, R.22E 
, R.21 E 


Entiat 


11-18-66 


2,386.00 


2,040.00 


Game Range 


T. 25 N. 
T. 25 N. 
T. 26 N. 
T.26N. 


, R.20E 
, R.21 E 
,R.20E 
, R.21 E 


Klickitat 


12-11-64 


2,232.64 


7,612.36 


Game Range 


T. 3N„ 
T. 4N., 
T. 5N., 
T. 6N., 


R. 13 E. 
R.14E. 
R. 14 E. 
R. 14 E. 


Morning Dove 


12-11-64 


194.35 




Dove Shooting 


T. 12 N. 


R.20E 


Shooting Area 










Moxee, WA 


Methow 


01-29-73 


80.00 


11,669.00 


Game Range 


T. 34 N. 


R.22E 


Yakima River 


12-11-64 


4,162.16 


99,299.00 


See (a), (b) 


T. 14 N. 


R.19E 




10-16-67 






(c), (d) below 


T. 15 N. 


R.19E 




02-02-72 








T.15N. 


R.19E 


(a) Roza Site 




Incl. in 
Total 




Fishing 
Recreation 


T.15N. 


R.19E. 


(b) Umtanum Site 




Incl. in 
Total 




Fishing 
Recreation 


T.16N. 


R.19E. 


(c) Squaw Cr. Site 




Incl. in 
Total 




Fishing 
Recreation 


T. 15 N. 


R.19E. 


(d) Amendment for 




Incl. in 


_ 


Game Range 


T. 14 N. 


R.19E. 


L.T.Murray 




Total 






T. 15 N. 


R. 19 E. 


Swakane 


04-15-68 


1,046.46 


8,947.00 


Game Range 


T. 23 N. 
T.24N. 
T. 24 N. 


R.20E 
R.20E 
R.21 E 


Yakima 


02-02-72 


719.76 


79,521.00 


Winter feed 


T.12N. 


R.16E 


Feeding Areas 








sites for 
Big Game 


T. 12 N. 
T. 15 N. 


R.17E 
R.17E 


Chelan Butte and 


02-11-72 


2,398.88 


7,080.00 


Wildlife 


T.26N. 


R.22E 


Gallagher Flats 








Rec. Areas 


T.27N. 
T.27N. 


R.22E 
R.23E 


Quincy and Crab 


03-27-72 


858.40 


33,967.00 


Wildlife 


T. 19 N. 


R.22E 


Creek 








Rec. Areas 


T. 19 N. 
T.20N. 
T. 15 N. 


, R. 23 E 
.R.23E 
,R.23E 



31 



32 



Appendix B Land Tenure 
Adjustment Criteria for 
Retention or Disposal 

Criteria that will be used in categorizing this public 
land for either retention or disposal, as well as 
identifying acquisition opportunities and priorities, are 
summarized below. This list is not considered all- 
inclusive, but it represents the majorfactors that will 
be evaluated. The criteria that will be used include the 
following: 

• public resource values that will benefit and enhance 
the range management, wildlife habitat, watershed, 
recreation, forestry, mineral, cultural resource, 
endangered, threatened, or sensitive plant and 
animal, and wilderness programs; 

• legal as well as physical accessibility of the land for 
public use; 

• amount of public monetary investments in facilities 
or improvements on the public land and the potential 
for recovering those investments; 

• difficulty or costs in time and money in the effective 
managerial administration of the lands; 

• suitability or desirability of the land for management 
by another governmental agency; 

• significance of any subsequent land use decisions in 
stabilizing, enhancing, or hindering existing or 
potential businesses, social and economic conditions, 
and/or life-styles; 

•need for future mineral development; 

• encumbrances to the land, including, but not limited 
to, Recreation and Public Purposes and small tract 
leases and/or other leases and permits, rights-of-way, 
and withdrawals; 

■ consistency of the decision with cooperative 
agreements and plans or policies of other agencies; 

• suitability and need for change in landownership or 
use for purposes including, but not limited to, 
community expansion or economic development, 
such as residential, commercial, industrial, or 
agricultural (other than grazing) development; and 

• state and local governmental requests and 
recommendations for retention or disposal of BLM 
administered public land. 

Disposal of lands will be under the applicable 
authorities and in the following order of preference: 

1 . State Lieu and State Grant selections, 

2. State Exchanges, 



3. Private Exchanges, 

4. Recreation and Public Purpose patents, 

5. BLM/U.S. Forest Service jurisdictional transfers 
(These are minor jurisdictional transfers usually 
involving limited acreages; it does not refer to the 
proposed BLM/Forest Service interchange that is 
presently underconsideration.), 

6. Withdrawals to otherfederal agencies, 

7. Public sales, 

8. Indian allotments, or 

9. Desert land entries (subject to the Food Securities 
Act of 1985). 



33 



Public lands which meet land sales disposal criteria in the Planning Area 



Legal Description: 

Township Range 

26 N. 20 E. 

7N. 21 E. 

7N. 21 E. 

28 N. 21 E. 

8N. 22 E. 

8N. 22 E. 

21 N. 22 E. 

28 N. 22 E. 

28 N. 22 E. 

28 N. 22 E. 

32 N. 22 E. 

26 N. 23 E. 

27 N. 23 E. 

27 N. 23 E. 
26 N. 25 E. 

33 N. 25 E. 
10 N. 26 E. 

9 N. 27 E. 

10 N. 27 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

9 N. 28 E. 

28 N. 28 E. 
6N. 29 E. 
8N. 30 E. 
7N. 31 E. 
9N. 31 E. 
9N. 31 E. 

39 N. 33 E. 

14 N. 35 E. 



Section 

29 
10 
12 
14 
10 
28 

8 
19 
23 
26 
17 

5 

9 
33 
17 

1 
26 

8 
34 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 

8 
18 
20 
18 
32 

1 
20 
22 
12 
12 



Subdivision 

Lot 8 

Lot1 

Lots 9 & 10 

W1/2SE1/4 

Lot1 

Lot2,NW1/4SW1/4 

Lot1 

Lot 3 

SE1/4SE1/4 

NE1/4SW1/4 

SE1/4SW1/4 

SE1/4NW1/4, SW1/4NE1/4 

Lot 10 

NW1/4NE1/4 

E1/2NW1/4 

Lots 3 & 4 

E1/2SE1/4 

Lot1 

SW1/4NW1/4 

Lot 12 

Lot 18 

Lot 77 

Lot 83 

Lot 107 . 

Lot 137 

Lot 141 

Lot 145 

Lot 146 

Lot 152 

Lot 155 

Lot 163 

Lot 173 

Lot 174 

Lot 178 

Lot 180 

Lot 181 

Lot 202 

Lot 223 

Lot 86 

Lot 140 

Lot 168 

Lot 183 

Lot 185 

Lot 187 

Lot 199 

Lot 21 5 

Lot 21 7 

Lot 3 

SW1/4NE1/4, SE1/4NW1/4 

N1/2NE1/4 

SE1/4NE1/4 

Lot1 

NE1/4SW1/4.N1/2SE1/4 

NW1/4NE1/4.N1/2NW1/4 

Lot 6 

NW1/4SW1/4 



34 



Appendix C 
Standard Design 
Features and Operations 
Procedures 

Standard Design Features 

Introduction 

The following list of standard design features includes 
project design features, reclamation measures, and 
procedures that could be applied as stipulations or 
requirements on proposed projects at the discretion of 
the authorized officer. The standard design practices 
will be used as mitigation measures throughout the 
planning area to avoid or reduce undesirable impacts. 
Because it is not possible to anticipate every kind of 
project that might be proposed, other practices not 
listed below might also be applied to particular 
projects. 

Range Developments (General) 

The following is a discussion of typical design 
features and construction practices for range improve- 
ments and treatments proposed in this plan (See 
Table 2-7 for Range Improvements by Allotment). 
There are many special design features that can be 
made part of a project's design which are not 
specifically discussed in this Appendix. One example 
of a special design feature would be the use of a 
specific color of fence post to blend with the 
surrounding environment, thereby mitigating some of 
the visual impact of the fence. These mitigating 
design features will be developed, if needed, for 
individual projects at the time an environmental 
analysis is completed. 

Structural Improvements 

Fences 

Fences would be constructed to provide exterior 
allotment boundaries, divide allotments into pastures, 
protect streams and riparian zones, and control 
livestock. Most fences would be three or four wire and 
steel posts with intermediate wire stays. Existing 
fences that create wildlife movement problems would 
be modified. Proposed fence lines would not be 
bladed or scraped. Gates or cattleguards (gates with 
cattleguards) would be installed where fences cross 
existing roads. For any fences in wildlife migration 
areas, the need for let down fences to allow passage 
of wildlife would be analyzed. These fences would be 
let down when livestock are not present. 

Water Impoundments 

Reservoirs, including dugouts and waterholes, and 
catchments would be constructed with earth moving 
machinery. The essential steps in constructing a dam 
for a reservoir are the excavation of a keyway, 
backfilling a core of non-permeable material and 



placing other fill to a prescribed height and slope. 
Generally, all fill material is excavated on-site. Dug- 
outs are very small reservoirs whose dams do not 
have a keyway and core. Depending upon feasibility, 
some reservoirs with a fill of over 1 5 feet would be 
fenced and water piped to a trough or waterhole. 
Waterholes are excavated holes in non-permeable 
material with the soil placed adjacent to the hole. 
Catchments are rainfall catching projects consisting of 
a fenced watershed apron and an impermeable 
waterhole, bag, tank, or trough. Catchments may 
have large aprons for livestock or very small ones for 
wildlife guzzlers. 

Spring Development 

Springs would be developed or redeveloped using a 
backhoe to install a buried collection system, usually 
consisting of drain tile or perforated pipe and a 
collection box. A short pipeline could be installed to 
deliver water to a trough for use by livestock and 
wildlife. Ramps, rocks, orfloatboards would be 
provided in all water troughs for small birds and 
mammals to gain access to and/or escape from the 
water. Normally the spring area and the overflow are 
fenced to exclude livestock following development. 

New spring developments and new reservoirs would 
cause a permanent decrease in upland key species 
composition on 5 to 1 acres surrounding the new 
water source due to heavy utilization and trampling by 
livestock concentrating in the area. As springs are 
developed, water would be diverted to livestock water 
troughs, and fencing would protect riparian vegetation 
where significant overflow occurs. Consequently, a 
new increase would occur over the long-term in both 
woody and herbaceous riparian key species at 
springs. 

Pipelines 

Wherever possible, water pipelines would be buried. 
Most pipelines would have water troughs and 
sometimes storage tanks. 

Wells 

Well sites would be selected based on geologic 
reports that predict the depth to reliable aquifers. All 
applicable State laws and regulations that apply to the 
development of ground water would be observed. 

Nonstructural Improvements 

Vegetation Manipulation 

Vegetation manipulation (brush control and brush 
control with seeding) is proposed primarily in portions 
of the big sagebrush vegetation type where significant 
improvement in the range condition rating would 
require more than 1 5 years using grazing 
management alone. 

Vegetation manipulation projects would be designed 
using irregular patterns, untreated patches, and so 
forth, to provide for optimum edge effect for visual 
and wildlife considerations. Layout and design would 



35 



be coordinated with Washington State Department of 
Game biologists. 

Brush Control 

The proposed methods of brush control are burning, 
brushbeating, or plowing of big sagebrush outside of 
important deer wintering areas. Burning would 
temporarily reduce big sagebrush because big 
sagebrush does not resprout following fire. The effect 
of burning on perennial bunchgrasses varies with the 
intensity of the fire, season of the burn, and the 
species of grass in the burn area. The composition of 
Sandberg's bluegrass, bluebunch wheatgrass, and 
cheatgrass, where present, would increase on areas 
proposed for burning. Several studies in Idaho 
indicate that fall burning does not harm most 
perennial herbaceous species (Britton 1978). Sites 
with Idaho fescue or bitterbrush would not be burned 
since these species are easily damaged by fire. 

Seeding 

Seeding would be accomplished by use of the 
rangeland drill in most cases. Broadcast seeding 
would occur on small disturbed areas, rough terrain, 
and rocky areas. Preparation for seeding (brush and 
cheatgrass control) would be by burning or 
mechanical treatment. Based on observations of 
existing seedings in the RMP area and studies of 
similar areas in Oregon and Washington, crested 
wheatgrass would comprise 50 to 90 % of the seeded 
area. Species composition following any treatment 
would vary according to the success of the brush and 
cheatgrass control, the survival of other species in the 
seed mixture, and the amount of precipitation in the 
yearfollowing seeding. 

It is anticipated that the existing road and trail system 
would provide access for range improvement 
construction. 

It is assumed that normal maintenance such as 
replacement of pipeline sections, fence posts, and 
retreatment of vegetation manipulations would occur. 

Standard Operating 
Procedures 

The following procedures would be followed in the 
construction of all management facilities and for 
vegetation manipulations. 

1 . Specific proposed projects and alternatives to the 
proposed actions would be evaluated individually 
through the environmental analysis process to 
determine whether they would have significant 
adverse environmental impacts. 

2. To comply with the National Historic Preservation 
Act of 1 966, 36 CFR 800, and Executive Order 

1 1593, all areas where ground is to be disturbed by 
range developments would be inventoried for 
prehistoric and historic features. Where feasible, all 
sites found by this inventory would be avoided. 



If sites are found to be eligible for the national register 
and cannot be avoided, a determination of the effect 
of the project on the site(s), including appropriate 
mitigating measures if necessary, would be done in 
consultation with the State Historic Preservation 
Officer (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic 
Preservation. No action affecting the site would be 
taken until the Advisory Council and SHPO have had 
the opportunity to make comments. 

If buried cultural remains are encountered during 
construction, the operator must discontinue 
construction until the BLM evaluates the discovery 
and determines the appropriate action. 

3. No action would be taken by the BLM that could 
jeopardize the continued existence of any Federally 
listed threatened or endangered plant or animal 
species. An endangered species clearance with the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) would be 
required before any part of the Preferred Alternative 
or other alternatives would be implemented that could 
affect an endangered species or its habitat. 

In situations where data are insufficient to make an 
assessment of proposed actions, surveys of potential 
habitats would be made before a decision is made to 
take any action that could affect threatened or 
endangered species. Should the BLM determine that 
there could be an effect on a Federally listed species, 
formal consultation with the FWS would be initiated. 
In the interim period before formal consultation, the 
BLM would not take any action that would make an 
irreversible or irretrievable commitment of resources 
that would foreclose the consideration of 
modifications or alternatives to the proposed action. 

When the FWS opinion is received, if it should 
indicate the action would be likely to jeopardize the 
continued existence of a listed species or result in the 
destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat, 
the action would be abandoned or altered as 
necessary. 

The BLM also would comply with any State laws 
applying to animal or plant species identified by the 
State as being threatened or endangered (in addition 
to the Federally listed species). 

4. All actions would be consistent with the BLM's 
Visual Resource Management criteria. The 
management criteria for the specific visual class 
would be followed. (See Visual Resource 
Management this Appendix.) 

5. In crucial wildlife habitat (winter ranges, 
fawning/calving areas, strutting grounds, and the like), 
construction work on projects would be scheduled 
during seasons when the animals are not 
concentrated to avoid or minimize disturbances. 

6. Surface disturbance at all project sites would be 
held to a minimum. Disturbed soil would be 
rehabilitated to blend into the surrounding soil surface 



36 



and reseeded as needed with a mixture of grasses, 
forbs, and browse as applicable to replace ground 
cover and reduce soil loss from wind and water 
erosion. 

7. Analysis of cost effectiveness would be done on an 
Allotment Management Plan (AMP) basis priorto the 
installation of any management facility or land 
treatment. 

8. Generally all areas where vegetative manipulations 
occur would be totally rested from grazing during at 
least two growing seasons following treatment. 

9. All land treatment projects on crucial wildlife ranges 
would be limited in size, where appropriate, by the 
cover requirements of wildlife. 

Minerals 
General 

No "unnecessary or undue degradation" of federal 
lands will be allowed. "Unnecessary or undue 
degradation" means surface disturbance greaterthan 
what would normally result when activity is being 
accomplished by a prudent operator in usual, 
customary, and proficient operations of similar 
character and taking into consideration the effects of 
operations on other resources and land uses, outside 
the area of operations. Failure to initiate and complete 
reasonable mitigation measures, including 
reclamation of disturbed areas or creation of a 
nuisance may constitute unnecessary or undue 
degradation. Failure to comply with applicable 
environmental protection statutes and regulations 
thereunder will constitute unnecessary or undue 
degradation. 

Locatable Minera 
Under the Mining Laws 
(43 CFR 3809 and 3802) 

All Operations 

1 . All operations, whether casual, under a notice, or 
by a plan of operations, shall be reclaimed. 

2. All operations, including casual use and operations 
under either a notice or a plan of operations, shall be 
conducted to prevent unnecessary or undue 
degradation of the federal lands and shall comply with 
all pertinent federal and state laws, including but not 
limited to the following: 

a. Air Quality. All operators shall comply with 
applicable standards, including the Clean Air Act (42 
U.S.C. 1857etseq.). 

b. Water Quality. All operators shall comply with 
applicable federal and state water quality standards, 
including the Federal and State Water Pollution 
Control Act, as amended (30 U.S.C. 1 151 et seq.). 



c. Solid Wastes. All operators shall comply with 
applicable federal and state standards for the 
disposal of solid wastes, including regulations issued 
pursuant to the Solid Waste Disposal Act as amended 
by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (42 
U.S.C. 6901 et seq.). All garbage, refuse, or waste 
shall either be removed from the affected lands or 
disposed of or treated to minimize, so far as is 
practicable, its impact on the lands. 

d. Fisheries, Wildlife, and Plant Habitat. The operator 
shall take such action as may be needed to prevent 
adverse impacts to threatened or endangered species 
and their habitat which may be affected by 
operations. 

e. Cultural and Paleontological Resources. Operators 
shall not knowingly disturb, alter, injure, or destroy 
any scientifically important paleontological remains of 
any historical or archaeological site, structure, 
building, or object on federal lands. 

Operators shall immediately bring to the attention of 
the authorized officer any cultural and/or 
paleontogical resources that might be altered or 
destroyed on federal lands by his/her operations and 
shall leave such discovery intact until told to proceed 
by the authorized officer. The authorized officer shall 
evaluate the discoveries brought to his/her attention, 
take action to protect or remove the resource, and 
allow operations to proceed within 1 working days 
after notification to the authorized officer of such 
discovery. 

The federal government shall have the responsibility 
and bear the cost of investigations and salvage of 
cultural and paleontology values discovered after a 
plan of operations has been approved, or where a 
plan is not involved. 

3. Maintenance and Public Safety. During all 
operations, the operator shall maintain his structures, 
equipment, and other facilities in a safe and orderly 
manner. Hazardous sites or conditions resulting from 
operations shall be marked by signs, fenced, or 
otherwise identified to alert the public in accordance 
with applicable federal and state laws and 
regulations. 

4. Applicability of State Law. Nothing shall be 
construed to effect a preemption of state laws and 
regulations relating to the conduct of operations or 
reclamation on federal lands under the mining laws. 

Notice of Operations, 5 Acres or Less 

The following standards govern activities conducted 
under a notice: 

1 . Access routes shall be planned for only the 
minimum width needed for operations and shall follow 
natural contour, where practicable, to minimize cut 
and fill. 



37 



2. All tailings, dumps, deleterious materials or 
substances, and other waste produced by the 
operations shall be disposed of so as to prevent 
unnecessary orundue degradation in accordance 
with applicable federal and state Laws. 

3. At the earliest feasible time, the operator shall 
reclaim the area disturbed, except to the extent 
necessary to preserve evidence of mineralization, by 
taking reasonable measures to prevent or control on- 
site and off-site damage to the federal lands. 

4. Reclamation shall include, but shall not be limited 

to: 

a. Saving of topsoil forf inal application after 
reshaping of disturbed areas has been completed; 

b. Measures to control erosion, landslides, and water 
runoff; 

c. Measures to isolate, remove, or control toxic 
materials; 

d. Reshaping the area disturbed, application of the 
topsoil, and revegetation of disturbed areas, where 
reasonably practicable; and 

3. Rehabilitation of fisheries and wildlife habitat. 

Plan of Operations-Prevention of 
Unnecessary or Undue Degradation 

1 . When an operator files a plan of operations of a 
significant modification, which encompasses land not 
previously covered by an approved plan, the 
authorized officer shall make an environmental 
assessment or a supplement thereto to identify the 
impacts of the proposed operations on the lands and 
to determine whether an environmental impact 
statement is required. 

2. In conjunction with the operator, the authorized 
officer shall use the environmental assessment to 
determine the adequacy of mitigating measures and 
reclamation procedures included in the plan to insure 
the prevention of unnecessary or undue degradation 
of land. If an operator advises he/she is unable to 
prepare mitigating measures, the authorized officer, in 
conjunction with the operator, shall use the 
environmental assessment as a basis for assisting 
the operator in developing such measures. 

3. If, as a result of the environmental assessment, the 
authorized officer determines that there is "substantial 
public interest" in the plan, the authorized officer shall 
notify the operator, in writing, that an additional period 
of time, not to exceed the additional 60 days provided 
for approval of a plan, is required to consider public 
comments on the environmental assessment. 



OeI md 3£3 hammic 

Standard Stipulations 

Standard stipulations are listed in Sec. 6 of Offerto 
Lease and Lease for Oil and Gas Form 31 00-1 1 . 
They are: 

Lessee shall conduct operations in a mannerthat 
minimizes adverse impacts to the land, air, and water, 
to cultural, biological, visual, and other resources, and 
to other land uses or users. Lessee shall take 
reasonable measures deemed necessary by lessorto 
accomplish the intent of this section. To the extent 
consistent with lease rights granted, such measures 
may include, but are not limited to, modification to 
siting or design of facilities, timing of operations, and 
specification of interim and final reclamation 
measures. Lessor reserves the right to continue 
existing uses and to authorize future uses upon or in 
the leased lands, including the approval of easements 
or rights-of-way. Such uses shall be conditioned so as 
to prevent unnecessary or unreasonable interference 
with rights of lessee. 

Prior to disturbing the surface of the leased lands, 
lessee shall contact lessorto be apprised of 
procedures to be followed and modifications or 
reclamation measures that may be necessary. Areas 
to be disturbed may require inventories or special 
studies to determine the extent of impacts to other 
resources. Lessee may be required to complete minor 
inventories or short-term special studies under 
guidelines provided by lessor. If in the conduct of 
operations, threatened or endangered species, 
objects of historic or scientific interest, or substantial 
unanticipated environmental effects are observed, 
lessee shall immediately contact lessor. Lessee shall 
cease any operations that would result in the 
destruction of such species or objects. 

Special Stipulations 

Special stipulations are attached to oil and gas leases 
to provide additional protection for fragile areas or 
critical resource values. Examples of special 
stipulations are seasonal restrictions forcritical 
wildlife habitat and No Surface Occupancy to protect 
special values or fragile areas. 

Timber Harvest 

Sale Planning 

Timber. Planning for a timber sale must precede 
actual field layout of the sale. General needs and 
goals for a particular area are established years in 
advance through the five-year timber sale plan. Such 
plans are more sharply focused as certain tracts are 
selected for inclusion in short-range plans such as 
annual timber sale plan. Environmental assessments 
(EA) are prepared for specific sale areas. Once an 
area has been selected and approved for inclusion in 
the annual sale plan, the field forester, with the aid of 
resource specialists, makes adjustments as 
necessary to best meet the stated plans and 



38 



objectives and environmental protection require- 
ments. Planning and preparation for all sales shall 
consider long-range and short-range planning. Prior 
to field layout of a proposed sale, the Area Manager 
reviews, with the foresters assigned to the sale layout 
task, the following: 

a. Five-year timber sale plan. 

b. Management plans for special use areas and other 
activities, e.g., HMPs. 

c. Annual timber sale plan including EA for proposed 

action. 

d. Road transportation plan for area, including 
planned design standards. 

e. Public access plan for area and current status of 
access. 

f . Terms and conditions of right-of-way agreements 
and easements for area involved. 

g. Condition and status of cadastral surveys in area. 

h. Status of inventories foror occurrence of sensitive, 
threatened, or endangered plants and animals; status 
of inventories of cultural resources. 

i. Notification requirements of Corps of Engineers 
under Sec. 404 of Federal Water Pollution Control Act 
if work involves discharge of dredged or fill material in 
navigable waters; applicability of any general permit 
issued pursuant to Sec. 404. 

j. Applicability of shoreline/coastal zone management 
programs pursuant to the Shoreline Management Act 
of 1971 as amended. 

2. Silvicultural Practices. Silvicultural practices must 
be used that best meet the management goals and 
related land-use prescriptions and assure prompt 
regeneration of the forest. Selection cutting, shelter- 
wood cutting, clearcutting or their various 
modifications are available options. 

a. Clearcutting would not be used as a cutting 
practice (unless approved as a result of a natural 
disaster): 

(1 ) Soil slope or other watershed conditions are 
fragile and subject to unacceptable damage. 

(2) There is no assurance that the area can be 
adequately restocked within 15 years after harvest. 

(3) Aesthetic values outweigh other considerations. 

b. Clearcutting would be used only where: 

(1 ) It is silviculturally essential to accomplish the 
relevant forest management objectives. 



(2) The size of clearcut blocks, patches, or strips are 
kept at the minimum necessary to accomplish 
silvicultural and other multiple-use management 
objectives. Cutting units would not exceed 40 acres in 
normal circumstances. More than 40 acres may be 
appropriate for salvage of an area already 
environmentally damaged by fire, insect, or wind, or 
where largercutting units would minimize road where 
larger cutting units would minimize road construction 
and other actions which would result in greater 
adverse environmental impact on the total forest. 

3. Sale Design. Cutting areas should be shaped and 
designed to blend as much as possible with the 
natural terrain and landscape. 

4. Roads. Roads and other facilities would be kept to 
a minimum and, where needed to fulfill short- and 
long-term management needs, would be located, 
designed, and constructed to the standards 
necessary forthe total land use and resource values 
involved. 

a. Location of Logging Roads. Roads would be so 
located to minimize the risk of material entering 
adjacent streams or other waters. 

(1) Roads will be located on stable terrain such as 
moderate sideslopes or ridgetops whenever possible. 
When roads must cross potential unstable terrain, the 
road would be engineered to the extent necessary to 
prevent unacceptable damage. Where sidecasting of 
waste material during road excavation will cover the 
downslope soil with rock and subsoil incapable of 
supporting productive vegetation, consider end- 
hauling waste material to stable areas of more 
moderate topography. 

(2) Logging roads will be located away from wet or 
marshy areas and otherwetlands, meadows, riparian 
areas, and streambanks. Otherwise, necessary 
drainage and streambank protection would be 
provided. 

(3) The number of stream crossings would be 
minimized. When it is practical, streams would be 
crossed at right angles to the main channel. 

(4) Areas of vegetation would be left or established 
between roads and streams. 

b. Road Design. Consistent with good safety 
practices and intended use, each road will be 
designed to the minimum-use standards adapted to 
the terrain and soil materials so as to minimize 
surface disturbance and damage to water quality. 

( 1 ) A flexible design will be to minimize damage to 
soil and water quality. 

(2) Roads will be designed no widerthan necessary 
to accommodate the immediate anticipated use . 



39 



(3) Culvert out-flow would not be allowed to be 
discharged onto unprotected fill slopes. Energy 
dissipaters would be installed at culvert outlets or in 
half rounds where needed. 

(4) Where applicable, water crossing structures would 
be designed to provide for adequate fish passage, 
minimum impact on water quality, and the 25-year 
frequency storm. Increases in water yield and peak 
flows resulting from vegetation removal would be kept 
in mind when designing structures. 

(5) Roads will be designed to drain naturally by 
outsloping and by grade changes wherever possible. 
Where outsloping is not feasible, use roadside ditches 
and culverts to drain roads onto undisturbed ground. 

(6) Dips, waterbars, and cross-drainage would be 
provided on all temporary roads. 

(7) Drainage diversions would be placed above 
stream crossing so that water may be filtered through 
vegetative buffers before entering the stream. 

(8) Drainage would be provided where ground causes 
slope instability. 

c. Road Construction. Road construction represents a 
principal source of sedimentation. Limit excavation to 
the practical, essential amount needed to meet the 
necessary road standards. Plan for stabilization of soil 
exposed and for rehabilitation of other environmental 
damage during construction. 

Harvest Techniques. Sale layout planning will 
include planning for use of harvest systems that 
minimize damage to the site and to reserve trees and 
provide maximum protection from fire, insects, 
disease, wind, rodents, and other hazards. 

a. Felling. Directional felling systems would be used 
where needed to minimize site damage; to protect 
streams, buffer strips, riparian areas, cultural sites, or 
reserved timber (including wildlife trees) ; or to 
increase timber utilization. 

b. Landings. Landings will be of minimum size 
commensurate with safety an equipment require- 
ments and located on stable areas so as to minimize 
the risk of material entering adjacent streams and 
waters. Landings should be located on firm ground 
above the high-water level of any stream. Landing 
locations on unstable areas, on steep side hill areas, 
or areas which require excessive excavation should 
be avoided. 

Soil Protection. Preserving the upper soil strata for 
the subsequent growing of future forest crops 
depends in large part on the care, planning, and 
professional judgement exercised in sale layout. No 
more than 1 2 percent of the area would be allowed to 
become compacted. 



a. Protection of Watershed. Each sale will be planned 
to reduce to a minimum the amount of soil erosion 
resulting from road construction, logging, or slash 
disposal commensurate with practical logging 
procedures and reasonable costs. 

b. Revegetation. Prompt planning will be undertaken 
for revegetation of roadway cut and fill slopes and 
other areas where soil has been seriously disturbed 
and constitutes an erosion and sedimentation hazard. 
Revegetation and erosion prevention measures may 
include mulching, seeding to grass or legumes or 
forbs, planting of rapid-growth species of plants, 
seeding or planting of trees, hydromulching, and other 
appropriate soil stabilization practices. 

Protection of streams, wetlands-riparian areas, and 
otherwaters. When planning operations along 
streams, lakes, bogs, swamps, marshes, wet 
meadows, springs, seeps, or other sources where the 
continuous presence of water is indicated, protect soil 
and vegetation from disturbances that could cause 
adverse effects on water quality and water quantity, 
wildlife and aquatic habitat. Special consideration will 
be given around sources that supply domestic water. 
Use streamside buffer strips along perennial and 
intermittent streams to reduce the quantity of 
sediment an logging wastes that might reach the 
stream, to help prevent stream water temperature 
increases, and to protect aquatic life, riparian zones, 
and natural streamside beauty. Review decisions 
concerning management of riparian areas and 
wetlands made during the planning process regarding 
management objectives, vegetative composition, 
planned management actions, etc. If guidelines for 
marking buffer strips are not listed in the planning 
documents, the following guidelines should be 
observed: 

a. Leave all hardwood trees critical to stream 
protection and shrubs, grasses, rocks, and natural 
"down" timber which afford shade over a perennial 
stream or maintain streambank protection. Where 
insufficient non-merchantable tree species exist to 
provide up to a minimum 75% of original shade over 
the stream, a fringe of undisturbed merchantable 
trees may be required. These trees are also the future 
source of large woody debris for the stream and 
riparian areas. 

b. All natural-occurring, large woody debris and tree 
boles should be left in the stream to provide habitat 
structure, unless blocking migrations of fish or 
recommended for removal by a hydrologist or 
biologist. 

c. Neither an optimum nor a minimum width can be 
arbitrarily established for buffer strips. The necessary 
width varies with steepness of the terrain, the nature 
of the undercover, the kind of soil, the size of the 
stream, the width of the riparian area, and the amount 
of timberthat is to be removed. 



40 



d. For effective filtering of sediment, buffer strips 
should be wide enough to entrap the material that 
erodes from upslope road construction or from 
adjacent logging areas. Under some conditions, and 
with careful control in adjacent logging areas, a 
relatively narrow buffer strip may suffice. On the other 
hand, where excessive soil movement may occur, the 
buffer strip may have to be much wider and other 
precautions will have to be taken to eliminate adverse 
effects on the stream water quality. 

e. A modification of the buffer strip plan may involve 
removal of some merchantable trees from buffer 
strips as decided by an interdisciplinary team during 
sale planning. Buffer strips may be protected by 
leaving stumps high enough to prevent upslope trees 
from rolling or sliding through the strips into the 
streams, by parallel felling, or by tree pulling or 
jacking. 

f . Where timber should be removed because it would 
be subject to excessive windthrow and where it is 
difficult to leave an adequate buffer of timber to shade 
and protect the stream, plan to reestablish cover 
along the stream after cutting is completed. Fast 
growing deciduous species or other suitable 
vegetation may be required to restore shade as 
quickly as possible. Leave understory vegetation as 
undisturbed as possible to filter runoff and help 
stabilize the soil. 

Wildlife Considerations. Special care will be taken 
during sale layout planning to protect or preserve 
important wildlife and aquatic habitat. Identified 
crucial habitats may include big game winter ranges, 
migration routes, calving ground, strutting ground, 
nesting areas, and riparian zones. However, certain 
habitat considerations must be a part of every sale 
layout plan. 

a. Legislated Action. Positive action will be taken to 
preserve sensitive threatened or endangered species 
and their habitat, in accordance with the mandates of 
the Endangered Species Act of 1 940, Sikes Act 1 960, 
and existing Bureau policy. 

b. Wildlife Tree (Snag) Management. Evenly 
distributed management will be provided for cavity 
dwellers on managed forest lands without creating 
logging safety hazards and without violating the 
decisions on which the allowable cut plan is based. 
Maximum use would be made of existing withdrawals 
to manage snags. These areas can be managed to 
contribute to the snag requirement while recently cut 
units may contain few or no snags. To meet the snag 
policy, wildlife trees/snags will be retained, as 
feasible, on each acre of managed forest land. Snag 
management in areas that are devoid of snags, or 
have limited existing snags, may require that an 
adequate number of green trees or culls be left per 
acre to maintain a viable population level of cavity 
dependent wildlife. 



Specific wildlife tree/snag diameters (DBH) to be 
retained will be based on wildlife species require- 
ments. When snag management is not directed at 
specific species habitat requirements, then wildlife 
tree/snag diameter selection would be divided 
approximately equally between snags 25 inch DBH 
and larger ranging to 50 feet in height and snags 1 0- 
25 inches DBH over 6 feet in height. In all cases 
leave all the soft snags and the largest available hard 
snags when a choice exists. In selecting wildlife trees, 
give special attention to snags and culls exhibiting 
heart rot, broken tops, external fungal conks, dead 
branch stubs, and signs of existing wildlife use. 

c. Down Log Management. Provide at least 5 to 1 
down logs per acre on lands in the intensive forest 
base. Each log should have a minimum dimension of 
1 2"-1 7" x 20". Meeting this goal should not be difficult 
under normal circumstances because clearcut units 
usually contain more material meeting the size 
requirements. 

d. Opening (Forages)/Cover Ratio. Evaluate the 
opening (forage) and cover ratio in a proposed timber 
sale area when the sale involves big game habitat. 
Consult a wildlife biologist to determine how to obtain 
maximum benefits of timber harvest on the 
maintenance of optimum forage/cover ratios on deer 
and elk summer and winter ranges. 

e. Access. The effect of accessibility and human 
disturbance on wildlife will be considered in road 
location and design. Closure of unneeded roads 
would take place upon completion of logging, and, if 
necessary, seasonal closures of operations would 
take place during critical wildlife periods. The 
cumulative effects of the road transportation network 
will be considered on key areas that are crucial for big 
game winter survival and fawning/calving habitat. 

Cultural Resources. Special consideration must be 
given during sale layout to protection and 
preservation of cultural resources as required by the 
Antiquities Act of 1 906 and the National Historic 
Preservation Act of 1966. 

Utilization, Slash Disposal and Site 
Preparation. Consideration of the following will be 
included in the sale planning efforts: 

a. Utilization. Complete utilization is encouraged of all 
harvested trees, including marginal and 
noncommercial species. Each forest products sale 
will provide opportunity for maximum use of all timber 
or other vegetative resources sold and to prevent 
destruction of unused materials provided that such 
utilization is consistent with wildlife requirements. 

b. Slash Disposal and Site Preparation. To achieve 
fire hazard reduction, and to provide for reforestation 
and other intensive forest management opportunities, 
full consideration must be given at time of sale 
planning to the desirability and method of slash 
disposal and site preparation. Factors to be 



41 



considered include, but are not limited to, utilization of 
material, removal of debris, smoke management, fire 
protection, watershed protection, soil compaction, 
nutrient loss, wildlife habitat requirements, animal 
damage, and reforestation requirements. 

Reforestation. Each sale plan must include plans 
for prompt reforestation of the sale area after 
completion of the timber harvest operation by natural 
or artificial means. 

Other Vegetative Resources. Preparation for 
sales or other vegetation resources or for small sales 
of minor forest products may be somewhat less 
detailed than preparation for a regular timber sale. As 
a minimum, consider the following: 

a. Opportunity for sale and potential competitive 
interest. ' 

b. Land use plans and multiple-use relationships in 
the area, including MFP recommendations and 
decisions. 

c. EA for proposed action. 

d. Access to area. 

e. Land status. 

f. Property lines. 

g. Effect of sale on other forest products, 
h. Protection reserved resources. 

i. Site protection. 

j. Erosion control. 

k. Preservation of water quality. 

Plan. Prepare a layout plan after on-the-ground 
inspections of the sale area. Incorporate all applicable 
considerations listed in Section I, above, in the layout 
plan. The planned sale layout should be depicted on 
aerial photos and maps of the area, as best suited to 
the situation, with accompanying narrative. 

Logging System. The layout plan must reflect 
selection of the optimum logging systems, taking into 
consideration the topography, size of cutting area, 
road locations, silvicultural prescriptions for the sale 
area, size of timber, location of protection areas and 
damageable sites, other multiple-use factors, and 
harvest plans for removal of timberfrom adjacent 
reserved areas. 

Road and Boundary Locations. On aerial photos 
or maps, show the following: 

a. Location and boundary of clear-cut areas, partial 
cuts areas, special cutting areas and special yarding 
areas. 

b. Location of reserve areas or reserved trees. 

c. Location of property boundaries. 

d. Location of mainline roads, logging spur roads, and 
landing areas. 

Supervision. Sale layout, in accordance with the 
layout plan, will be done by or underthe supervision 



of a professional forester and in consultation with 
specialists of other disciplinary expertise. The 
marking and designation of cutting areas is a complex 
assignment, requiring the best effort of experienced 
forestry personnel. Most sale layout involves 
completion of plans and consideration for the 
following items: 

a. Location and identification of corners, corner 
monuments and property lines. 

b. Mainline roads, spur roads, landings, and road 
improvement work located, surveyed, or designed 
and staked and locations referenced. 

c. Rights-of-way boundary involving new road 
construction blazed or painted and posted through 
timber areas. 

Fire Management 

1 . Fire Management Plans will be completed and 
approved for both the Border and Wenatchee 
Resource Areas. 

2. Unless covered by an approved fire management 
plan authorizing a modified suppression strategy, all 
wildfires on or threatening Bureau lands will be 
suppressed per policy. 

3. Suppression will follow policy and/or fire plan 
guidelines, increasing in intensity where life 
threatening situations, developed areas, and areas of 
high value resources are involved. 

4. All unplanned ignitions (wildfires) will have a timely 
post burn review and evaluation in orderto define 
appropriate rehabilitation and/or monitoring needs. 

5. All planned ignitions (prescribed fires) will have a 
written and approved burn plan listing specific, 
measurable objectives and techniques and will be 
conducted in accordance with Bureau fire 
management policy. 

Recreation Sites 

1 . Project work undertaken within recreation sites 
would be designed and constructed to fit general 
layout and themes of site. 

2. Project work undertaken near recreation sites 
would be designed and constructed with an adequate 
buffer to provide for protection of scenic values of the 
recreation site. 

Visual Resource Management 
(VRM) 

1 . Class l-Primarily for WSAs, RNAs, ACECs, ON As, 
Wilderness and Wild and Scenic Rivers. No projects 
will be allowed within these areas. 

2. Class II— Primarily for areas of high scenic quality. 
Any project work within a Class II area cannot be 
visible to a casual visitor from any travel route. 



42 



3. Class 1 1 1— Primarily for areas considered important 
from an aesthetic view point. Not necessarily 
outstanding scenery. Project work can be seen within 
a Class III area from travel routes. However, projects 
cannot be a focal point on the landscape. 

4. Class IV-Primarily for general scenic landscapes 
throughout much of BLM. Project work within a Class 
IV area can be a focal point on the landscape to the 
casual visitor. 

5. Class V-Primarily for sits requiring reclamation 
(landfills, timber cuts, mining operations, etc.). Project 
work within these areas is virtually unrestricted VRM 
guidelines. 

Cultural Resources 

Management of cultural resources emphasizes 
protection and preservation. To meet these 
objectives, the Department of Interior has issued 
instructions setting forth preservation and protection 
guidelines. In accordance with the National Historic 
Preservation Act of 1 966, as amended, Executive 
Order 1 1593 and BLM policy, appropriate measures 
(such as inventory and existing data review) would be 
taken to identify, protect, preserve, and determine the 
significance of cultural properties priorto 
implementation of any project or plan. Priorto any 
activity plan or project that may adversely affect these 
properties, the appropriate State Historic Preservation 
Office (SHPO) would be consulted in the 
determination of effect upon the cultural property. For 
any site within the project area determined eligible for 
the National Register of Historic Places, and 
determined to be adversely effected by the activity 
plan or project, mitigation measures would be 
undertaken. Appropriate mitigating measures and 
evaluation of effect on properties are determined in 
consultation with the State Historic Preservation 
Officer and National Advisory Council on Historic 
Preservation. Usually project or plan redesign 
(location or method) would be employed where 
practical. Mitigation measures may include, but are 
not limited to, the following: 1 ) sites; 2) intensive 
documentation of the cultural resource before 
proceeding with project implementation; 3) adopting 
methods or techniques that would minimize direct and 
indirect disturbance to the site and its environmental 
setting; 4) removing and relocating historic cultural 
properties to another location after documentation 
and development of a management plan to maintain 
the values of the property; or 5) excavating the 
archaeological properties with the goal of preserving 
the values of the properties. 

The inventory or mitigation would be directed by 
cultural resource specialists or through contracts with 
individuals or institutions meeting professional 
standards. Management plans would be developed 
for all National Register properties and others 
determined to need comprehensive management. 

Special stipulations in contracts and leases and 
acknowledgement of mining notices will be included 



to protect undiscovered or subsurface cultural 
resources not identified during inventory. In all cases, 
cultural resources discovered during an operation or 
activity on BLM land will be left intact and operations 
in the area suspended. Operations will not be 
resumed until written permission is received from the 
authorized officer. Cultural resources will be 
evaluated and protected in accordance with 
procedures under 36 CFR 800 and legislated 
requirements, including consultation with the State 
Historic Preservation Officer in the determinations of 
eligibility and effects. 

Special stipulations on fuelwood (firewood cutting) 
permits: Standing dead trees within 1 00' of any 
historic building or structural remains (for example 
cabins, barns, outbuildings, historic mining structures) 
must be felled away from the structure or remains. 

See also Timber Harvest (Cultural Resources), 
locatable Mineral Development Item, All Operations, 
2e citing the 43 CFR 3809 regulations. 

Wildlife 

No action will be taken by the BLM that could 
jeopardize the continued existence of any federally 
listed threatened or endangered plant or animal 
species. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will be 
consulted regarding actions that affect habitat of 
these species. State sensitive species will be given 
the same management considerations as though they 
were officially listed pursuant to the Endangered 
Species Act of 1973. 

Consultation with the Washington State Department 
of Game will be accomplished on major construction 
and/or surface-disturbing activities in high-value 
wildlife areas. 

Vegetation manipulation and revegetation projects in 
crucial wildlife areas would be done in irregular shape 
and to create a vegetation mosaic. 

All areas where major vegetation manipulation or 
conversion occurs will be totally rested from livestock 
grazing for at least two growing seasons following 
treatment. 

Wildlife escape devices will be installed and 
maintained in water troughs. 

BLM will not do any action that would reduce 
minimum flow below instream flow recommended by 
Washington State Department of Game/or Fisheries 
on Class I fishable streams. 

In crucial wildlife habitats, major construction and 
maintenance work will be scheduled to avoid or 
minimize disturbance to wildlife. Areas disturbed 
during project construction will be reseeded with a 
mixture of grasses, forbs, and shrubs to meet site 
specific needs or habitat requirements. All new fences 
will be built to standard Bureau wildlife specifications. 



43 



44 



Current Livestock Authorization, Estimated Livestock Carrying Capacities 
Selective Management Categories. 



and 

















Estimated** 


Management Allotment 


Selective 


Acres 


Livestock 


Grazing 


BLM AUMs 


Carrying 


Area Number 


Management 


Public 


Numbers 


Class 


* Period 


Authorized 


Capacity 




Category 


Land 






Begin-End 


Use 


AUMs 


Similkameen 
















0701 


I 


1,851 


123 


C 


4/20 - 6/10 


246 


128 


0702 


M 


200 


20 


C 


4/15 - 5/31 
10/6 - 11/15 


40 


40 


0703 


CI 


1,438 


53 


c 


6/1 - 10/15 


239 


239 


0704 


I 


4,607 


59 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


708 


599 


0705 


I 


2,322 


38 


c 


4/15 - 11/30 


283 


254 


0706 


CI 


488 


6 


C . 


4/15 - 12/15 


46 


46 


0707 


I 


3,742 


52 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


624 


247 


0708 


Cl 


2,031 


48 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


338 


338 


0709 


Cl 


1,357 


40 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


159 


159 


0710 


C2 


187 


9 


c 


6/1 - 7/31 


37 


37 


0711 


M 


1,524 


35 


c • 


6/1 - 10/31 


175 


175 


0712 


M 


2,894 


89 


c 


5/1 - 10/15 


489 


489 


0713 


Cl 


288 


7 


c 


6/1 - 10/31 


33 


33 


0714 


Cl 


468 


11 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


67 


67 


0833 


Cl 


40 


1 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


8 


8 


0858 


Cl 


157 


3 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


20 


20 


0861 


Cl 


460 


9 


c 


5/1 - 10/30 


55 


55 


0871 


Cl 


560 


18 


c 


4/15 - 8/14 


70 


70 


0890 


Cl 


881 


18 


c 


5/1 - 12/31 


142 


142 


0894 


C2 


500 


33 


c 


5/1 - 7/14 


83 


83 


0913 


Cl 


100 


3 


H 


5/1 - 7/31 


9 


9 


0920 


Cl 


111 


2 


C,H 


4/1 - 10/31 


16 


16 


0927 


C2 


320 


10 


c 


4/16 - 9/30 


53 


53 


0938 


Cl 


280 


12 


c 


5/1 - 6/30 
10/1 - 11/30 


46 


46 


0968 


C2 


670 


13 


c 


5/15 - 10/15 


67 


67 


Total 




27,476 


712 






4,053 


3,420 


Conconully 
















0723 


Cl 


492 


17 


c 


6/1 - 10/31 


84 


84 


0725 


C2 


790 


26 


c 


5/15 - 10/14 


130 


130 


0726 


C2 


80 


1 


c 


5/15 - 9/30 


13 


13 


0727 


C2 


716 


60 


c 


6/1 - 7/31 


120 


120 


0728 


Cl 


197 


5 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


37 


37 


0729 


C2 


117 


3 


c 


5/10 - 10/15 


17 


17 


0731 


C2 


160 


29 


c 


6/15 - 7/15 


29 


29 


0734 


M 


930 


62 


c 


4/20 - 5/20 


124 


124 


0735 


I 


720 


26 


c 


5/1 - 10/15 


144 


57 


0736 


Cl 


80 


3 


c 


4/1 - 5/31 
10/1 - 12/31 


16 


16 


0737 


I 


560 


16 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


112 


112 


0738 


Cl 


170 


2 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 
4/1 - 5/31 


21 


21 


0739 


C2 


197 


3 


c 


11/1 - 12/31 


33 


33 


0740 


C2 


676 


21 


c 


4/15 - 9/30 


113 


113 


0741 


Cl 


1,040 


21 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


148 


148 


0742 


C2 


80 


2 


c 


3/15 - 9/30 


10 


10 


0743 


C2 


140 


3 


c 


3/1 - 10/31 


23 


23 


0853 


C2 


80 


2 


c 


5/1 - 11/30 


16 


16 


0866 


C2 


40 


4 


c 


4/1 - 5/31 


7 


7 


0872 


Cl 


1,090 


22 


c 


5/15 - 10/31 


210 


210 


0919 


C2 


40 


1 


c 


4/15 - 10/14 


6 


6 


0959 


Cl 


988 


27 


c 


3/1 - 10/31 


218 


218 


0961 


C2 


80 


5 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


20 


20 


Total 




9,463 


361 






1,651 


1,564 


Jameson Lake 0771 


Cl 


1,564 


33 


c 


4/1 - 9/30 


195 


195 


0772 


Cl 


909 


23 


c 


4/1 - 8/31 


114 


114 


0789 


C2 


400 


7 


c 


4/1 - 10/30 


50 


50 


0971 


C2 


160 


2 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


17 


17 


Total 




3,033 


65 






376 


376 



45 



Current Livestock Authorization, 


Estimated Livestock Carr} 


ing Capacities, and 


Sele 


:tive Mana 


gement Categories. 




























Estimated 


Management 


Allotment 


Selective 


Acres 


Livestock 


Grazing 


BLM AUMs 


Carrying 


Area 


Number 


Management 


Public 


Numbers 


Class 


* Period 


Authorized 


Capacity 






Category 


Lar.d 






Begin-End 


Use 


AUMs 


Douglas Creek 














0774 


C2 


40 


2 


C 


4/15 - 8/15 


6 


6 




0775 


CI 


4,795 


120 


C 


5/1 - 8/31 


480 


480 




0776 


M 


400 


7 


C 


4/15 - 12/14 


57 


57 




0777 


M 


883 


16 


C 


4/1 - 12/15 


136 


136 




0778 


I 


5,405 


90 


C 


5/1 - 10/1 


449 


451 




0780 


CI 


160 


2 


C 


3/1 - 2/28 


21 


21 




0781 


CI 


1,562 


65 


C 


4/1 - 6/30 


195 


195 




0782 


CI 


958 


16 


c 


4/12 - 12/31 


137 


137 




0783 


M 


640 


27 


c 


4/1 - 7/30 


170 


170 




0784 


C2 


162 


6 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


40 


40 




0785 


CI 


2,619 


58 


c 


5/1 - 9/30 


291 


291 




0786 


M 


920 


13 


,c 


3/1 - 2/28 


153 


153 




0788 


CI 


1,761 


34 


c 


3/15 - 8/14 
9/15 - 12/14 


271 


271 




0909 


M 


160 


3 


c 


3/1 - 12/31 


27 


27 




0916 


M 


120 


9 


c 


4/1 -5/31 


17 


17 




0940 


C2 


160 


3 


c 


4/1 - 9/30 


18 


18 


Total 






20,745 


471 






2,360 


2,470 


Saddle Mountains 


















0797 


CI 


4,620 


101 


c 


3/1 - 5/31 


695 


695 




0806 


I 


9,558 


160 


c 


10/15-5/15 


1,120 


934 




0808 


I 


4,503 


156 


c 


3/1 - 5/31 


468 


294 




0810 


CI 


3,600 


96 


c 


12/15-2/28 


387 


387 


Total 






22,281 


513 






2,670 


2,310 


Rattlesnake 


Hills 


















0814 


M 


998 


8 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


91 


91 




0815 


M 


2,427 


51 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


405 


■405 




0817 


CI 


1,240 


6 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


66 


66 




0819 


CI 


400 


2 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


26 


26 




0820 


CI 


1,943 


81 


c 


3/1 - 6/30 


324 


324 




0822 


CI 


2,578 


151 


s 


3/1 - 2/28 


363 


363 




0821 


CI 


2,434 


33 


c 


5/1 - 2/28 


325 


325 




0823 


CI 


1,720 


96 


s 


3/1 - 2/28 


231 


231 




0825 


CI 


5,560 


55 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


655 


655 




0826 


CI 


1,112 


13 


C-H 
H 


3/1 - 5/31 
3/1 - 2/28 


120 
40 


120 
40 




0827 


CI 


362 


4 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


48 


48 




0828 


CI 


1,303 


87 


c 


3/15 -5/31 


217 


217 




0834 


M 


1,680 


33 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


400 


400 


Total 






23,757 


620 






3,311 


3,311 


Badger Slope 




















0540 


: 


4,808 


23 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


276 


848 




0544 


I 


692 


32 


c 


3/1 - 4/30 


64 


119 




0545 


CI 


120 


2 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


18 


18 




0546 


C2 


1,995 


51 


c 


12/1 - 2/28 


300 


300 




0590 


C2 


80 


2 


c 


10/1 - 2/28 


11 


11 




0672 


C2 


105 


1 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


12 


12 


Total 






7,800 


111 






681 


1,308 


Rock Creek 




















0548 


CI 


480 


7 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


48 


48 




0549 


C2 


320 


5 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


40 


40 




0550 


C2 


160 


5 ■ 


c 


5/30 - 9/10 


18 


18 




0551 


C2 


80 


3 


c 


5/15 - 8/30 


9 


9 




0552 


CI 


400 


5 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


40 


40 




0553 


CI 


2,508 


31 


c 


5/1 - 12/31 


251 


251 




0555 


CI 


1,120 


148 


c 


12/1 - 2/28 


149 


149 




0593 


CI 


480 


2 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


48 


48 


Total 






5,548 


206 






603 


603 



46 



Current Lives 


tock Autho 


rization, 


Estimated Livestock Carrying Capacities, and 


Selective Management Ca 


tegories. 




























Estimated 


Management 


Allotment 


Selective 


Acres 


Livestock 


Grazing 


BLM AUMs 


Carrying 


Area 


Number 


Management 


Public 


Numbers 


Class 


* Period 


Authorized 


Capacity 






Category 


Land 






Begin-End 


Use 


AUMs 


North Ferry 




















0516 


C2 


640 


29 


C 


6/1 - 9/30 


64 


64 




0517 


C2 


1,004 


37 


C 


6/1 - 10/15 


167 


167 




0518 


M 


1,068 


39 


C 


5/15 - 10/30 


214 


214 




0522 


C2 


434 


12 


c 


5/1 - 8/31 


48 


48 




0524 


CI 


1,294 


27 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


162 


162 




0525 


CI 


375 


8 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


50 


50 




0526 


M 


553 


20 


c 


6/1 - 10/15 


92 


92 




0527 


C2 


151 


5 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


20 


20 




0528 


C2 


33 


1 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


4 


4 




0571 


C2 


228 


7 


c 


5/1 -9/30 


33 


33 




0577 


C2 


40 


2 


c 


6/1 - 10/15 


7 


7 




0580 


C2 


220 


5 


c 


4/15 -10/31 


30 


30 




0583 


C2 


120 


2 


c 


5/1 - 11/30 


15 


15 




0586 


C2 


46 


1 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


8 


8 




0588 


C2 


568 


12 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


72 


72 




0594 


C2 


377 


14 


c 


6/1 - 10/15 


63 


63 




0608 


CI 


193 


9 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


35 


35 




0609 


C2 


349 


7 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


43 


43 




0618 


C2 


40 


1 


c 


5/1 - 11/15 


5 


5 




0630 


C2 


93 


1 


c 


3/1 - 11/30 


5 


5 




0631 


C2 


14 


1 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


10 


10 




0632 


C2 


160 


6 


c 


5/1 - 8/31 


23 


23 




0639 


C2 


80 


5 


c 


6/15 - 9/14 


15 


15 




0651 


C2 


140 


19 


c 


6/1 - 10/31 


34 


34 




0666 


CI 


464 


12 


c 


6/1 - 10/31 


62 


62 




0667 


C2 


80 


2 


c 


6/1 - 10/31 


10 


10 




0681 


C2 


40 


1 


c 


3/1 - 6/30 


4 


4 




0684 


C2 


40 


2 


H 


5/1 - 6/15 


3 


3 




0686 


M 


80 


3 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


10 


10 




0848 


M 


88 


2 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


15 


15 




0860 


C2 


798 


36 


c 


7/1 - 9/30 


109 


109 




0896 


M 


327 


16 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


65 


65 




0905 


M 


179 


8 


c 


7/1 - 10/1 


30 


30 


Total 






10,316 


352 






1,527 


1,527 


North Stevens 


















0513 


C2 


1,071 


24 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


143 


143 




0516 


CI 


482 


16 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


53 


53 




0565 


C2 


282 


15 


c 


6/15 - 9/30 


5 


5 




0569 


C2 


360 


9 


c 


5/15 - 9/30 


45 


45 




0578 


C2 


120 


4 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


17 


17 




0595 


C2 


465 


13 


c 


7/1 - 11/30 


66 


66 




0604 


C2 


184 


3 


c 


9/1 - 10/31 


31 


31 




0634 


CI 


240 


8 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


32 


32 




0645 


C2 


60 


1 


c 


3/1 - 10/31 


8 


8 




0656 


C2 


581 


14 


c 


6/15 - 11/15 


72 


72 




0664 


C2 


40 


1 


c 


4/15 - 5/31 
9/1 - 10/31 


5 


5 




0671 


C2 


280 


6 


c 


4/20 - 10/31 


37 


37 




0683 


I 


911 


51 


c 


5/1 - 8/1 


152 


75 


Total 






"57076" 


T55" 






r?6 


589 


Huckleberry 


Mountains 


















0502 


CI 


473 


13 


c 


5/1 - 9/30 


67 


67 




0503 


CI 


480 


3 


c 


6/1 - 10/31 


13 


13 




0504 


CI 


1,799 


50 


c 


5/15 - 9/30 


225 


225 




0506 


CI 


499 


17 


c 


5/15 - 10/14 


83 


83 




0508 


C2 


21 


1 


c 


6/1 - 8/31 


3 


3 




0573 


C2 


270 


13 


c 


6/1 - 9/15 


45 


45 




0591 


C2 


79 


2 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


13 


13 




0599 


C2 


164 


2 


c 


5/15 - 10/14 


8 


8 




0614 


C2 


80 


3 


c 


5/1 - 8/31 


10 


10 




0653 


C2 


239 


6 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


34 


34 


Total 






4,104 


110 






501 


501 


Juniper Forest 


















0534 


CI 


2,554 


100 


c 


3/1 - 4/20 


170 


160 




0535 


I 


2,985 


39 


c 


3/15 - 12/14 


353 


166 




0536 


I 


5,038 


138 


c 


1/1 - 4/15 


483 


247 




0693 


C3 


80 


1 


H 


5/1 - 7/1 
10/1 - 12/31 


10 


10 




0694 


CI 


1,072 


29 


c 


4/1 - 7/31 


115 


115 


Total 






11,729 


W 






1,131 


698 



47 



Current Lives 


tock Autho 


rization 


Estimated 


Livestock Carrying Capacities, and 


Selective Management Categories 


























Estimated 


Management Allotment 


Selective 


Acres 


Livestock 


Grazing 


BLM AUMs 


Carrying 


Area Number 


Management 


Public 


Numbers 


Class * Period 


Authorized 


Capacity 




Category 


Land 






Begin-End 


Use 


AUMs 


Chelan County 
















Scattered Tracts 
















0747 


C2 


480 


3 


H 


61 - 9/30 


27 


27 


0752 


C2 


560 


6 


H 


4/15 - 10/15 


36 


36 


0755 


CI 


870 


35 


C 


3/1 - 10/31 


145 


145 


0758 


C2 


700 


13 


C 


4/16 - 11/15 


88 


88 


0764 


M 


2,386 


19 


C 


4/10 - 9/30 


110 


110 


0768 


C2 


280 


13 


c 


4/16 - 7/31 


46 


46 


0847 


C2 


320 


4 


c 


4/1 - 9/30 


25 


25 


0850 


M 


795 


44 


c 


5/1 - 11/15 


132 


132 


0869 


CI 


322 


8 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


58 


58 


0887 


C2 


120 


4 


c 


5/1 - 9/30 


20 


20 


0888 


C2 


200 


4 


c 


5/1 - 9/30 


33 


33 


0901 


C2 


312 


11 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


44 


44 


0923 


CI 


1,490 


27 


c 


4/01 - 10/31 


190 


190 


0933 


C2 


40 


1 


H 


4/1 - 10/31 


8 


8 


0944 


C2 


80 


6 


c 


4/1 - 5/31 


13 


13 


0955 


C2 


582 


9 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


66 


66 


0963 


C2 


80 


2 


H 


3/1 - 10/31 


13 


13 


0941 


C2 


80 


1 


H 


3/1 - 1/31 


11 


11 


0925 


C2 


120 


7 


c 


6/1 - 8/31 


20 


20 


Total 




9,817 


217 






1,085 


1,085 


Stevens County 
















Scattered Tracts 
















0598 


C2 


80 


2 


C 


5/1 - 9/30 


10 


10 


0668 


C2 


80 


2 


C 


3/15 - 10/31 


13 


13 


0670 


C2 


77 


2 


c 


9/1 - 1//31 


9 


9 


Total 




237 


6 






32 


32 


Okanogan County 
















Scattered Tracts 
















0718 


CI 


280 


4 


C 


3/1 - 2/28 


47 


47 


0719 


C2 


295 


15 


C 


4/1 - 5/31 


30 


30 


0720 


C2 


320 


18 


C 


4/1 - 5/31 
10/1 - 10/31 


53 


53 


0721 


I 


688 


11 


C 


4/15 - 10/31 


69 


91 


0755 


CI 


400 


11 


C 


5/1 - 10/31 


67 


67 


0830 


C2 


40 


1 


C 


5/1 - 9/30 


7 


7 


0835 


C2 


276 


11 


c 


3/1 - 6/15 


40 


40 


0838 


C2 


118 


3 


c 


4/1 - 9/30 


17 


17 


0842 


C2 


40 


1 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


8 


8 


0843 


C2 


30 


1 


c 


4/15 - 9/15 


5 


5 


0844 


CI 


800 


19 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


133 


133 


0845 


C2 


80 


3 


c 


4/16 - 10/15 


16 


16 


0846 


I 


977 


31 


c 


4/1 - 5/31 
10/1 - 12/15 


140 


59 


0848 


C2 


88 


2 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


15 


15 


0849 


C2 


120 


7 


c 


7/1 - 9/30 


20 


20 


0852 


C2 


80 


8 


c 


6/1 - 7/31 


16 


16 


0854 


C2 


557 


40 


c 


4/20 - 6/30 


93 


93 


0860 


C2 


480 


7 


c 


5/x - 1/31 


61 


61 


0864 


C2 


200 


10 


c 


4/1 - 5/15 


15 


15 


0867 


C2 


153 


5 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


30 


30 


0870 


C2 


80 


3 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


16 


16 


0885 


C2 


200 


11 


c 


5/1 - 7/31 


33 


33 


0886 


C2 


120 


7 


c 


9/1 - 11/30 


20 


20 


0896 


C2 


327 


16 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


65 


65 


0899 


C2 


244 


5 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


55 


55 


0902 


C2 


362 


22 


c 


4/15 - 6/14 
10/1 - 10/31 


67 


67 


0904 


C2 


382 


18 


c 


9/1 - 11/31 


54 


54 


0905 


C2 


179 


7 


c 


6/1 - 10/1 


30 


30 


0906 


C2 


120 


3 


c 


5/1 - 11/1 


20 


20 


0910 


C2 


60 


2 


c 


5/10 - 9/20 


8 


8 


0914 


C2 


172 


6 


c 


5/15 - 9/30 


25 


25 


0915 


C2 


40 


1 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


6 


6 


0921 


C2 


370 


19 


c 


5/1 - 7/31 


56 


56 


0937 


C2 


160 


17 


c 


5/1 - 6/15 


26 


26 


0943 


C2 


200 


9 


H 


5/1 - 6/30 
10/1 - 10/31 


28 


28 



48 



Current Livesto 


ck Author] 


zation, 


Estimated Livestock Carrying Capacities, and 


Selective Management Cate 


gories. 


























Estimated 


Management Allotment 


Selective 


Acres 


Livestock 


Grazing 


BLM AUMs 


Carrying 


Area Number 


Management 


Public 


Numbers 


Class 


* Period 


Authorized 


Capacity 




Category 


Land 






Begin-End 


Use 


AUMs 


Okanogan County 
Scattered Tracts (Cont. 


) 














0946 


C2 


40 


4 


C 


5/1 - 6/30 


8 


8 


0948 


C2 


40 


2 


C 


6/1 - 8/31 


6 


6 


0949 


C2 


146 


5 


C 


5/1 - 10/31 


29 


29 


0951 


C2 


31 


1 


C 


5/1 - 9/30 


5 


5 


0952 


C2 


80 


2 


C 


3/1 - 2/28 


20 


20 


0953 


C2 


73 


1 


C 


5/1 - 2/28 


12 


12 


0957 


C2 


100 


3 


C 


4/1 - 9/30 


17 


17 


0969 


C2 


40 


1 


C 


3/1 - 8/31 


6 


6 


0970 


C2 


41 


2 


C 


5/1 - 5/31 


7 


7 


Total 






375 




9/1 - 10/31 




17475 


9,629 


1,533 


Ferry County 
















Scattered Tracts 
















0610 


C2 


84 


1 


C 


5/1 - 11/15 


8 


8 


Colockum Cooperative 
















Management Tracts 
















0793 


M 


1,935 


38 


C 


4/1 - 7/31 


152 


152 


Swakane Cooperative 
















Management Tracts 
















0923 


M 


1,480 


24 


c 


4/1 - 11/1 


190 


190 


Benton County 
















Scattered Tracts 
















0575 


C2 


152 


4 


c 


10/15 - 4/15 


23 


23 


0585 


C2 


640 


4 


c 


12/1 - 5/31 


43 


43 


0607 


C2 


160 


4 


c 


11/1 - 5/31 


25 


25 


0627 


C2 


34 


1 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


3 


3 


0638 


C2 


160 


5 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


20 


20 


0669 


C2 


80 


1 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


10 


10 


0688 


C2 


400 


11 


c 


2/1 - 6/15 


50 


50 


Total 




1,626 


30 






174 


174 


Yakima River Coopera- 
















tive Management Area 
















0803 


M 


241 


4 


c 


11/1 - 5/31 


27 


27 


0804 


M 


1,030 


19 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


148 


148 


0805 


M 


171 


9 


c 


5/1 - 6/30 


17 


17 


0823 


M 


80 


5 


s 


3/1 - 2/28 


11 


11 


Total 




1,522 


T7 






75? 


203 


Franklin County 
















Scattered Tracts 
















0581 


C2 


31 


1 


C 


3/1 - 6/30 


7 


7 


0587 


C2 


35 


1 


c 


3/1 - 8/31 


6 


6 


0597 


C2 


80 


5 


c 


11/1 - 4/30 


16 


16 


0606 


C2 


644 


13 


c 


10/15 - 5/15 


90 


90 


0644 


C2 


440 


5 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


63 


' 63 


0646 


C2 


120 


9 


c 


9/1 - 11/30 


27 


85 


0654 


C2 


160 


2 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


26 


26 


0662 


C2 


254 


12 


c 


4/15 - 11/30 


88 


88 


0674 


C2 


120 


7 


c 


3/1 - 7/1 


27 


27 


Total 




1,884 


55 






350 


V5Z 


Douglas County 
















Scattered Tracts 
















0744 


C2 


80 


2 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


11 


11 


0745 


C2 


960 


20 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


137 


137 


0746 


CI 


960 


20 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


137 


137 


0749 


C2 


775 


17 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


86 


86 


0750 


C2 


80 


2 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


16 


16 


0754 


C2 


265 


8 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


33 


33 


0756 


C2 


423 


14 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


85 


85 


0757 


C2 


198 


5 


c 


4/15 - 11/15 


33 


33 


0759 


C2 


136 


3 


H 


5/1 - 11/15 


20 


20 


0766 


CI 


2,414 


49 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


346 


346 


0767 


C2 


360 


7 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


51 


51 


0829 


CI 


200 


5 


c 


5/1 - 9/30 


25 


25 


0831 . 


ci 


750 


54 


c 


4/5 - 5/10 
12/1 - 12/31 


107 


107 


0841 


C2 


239 


6 


c 


4/1 - 9/30 


34 


34 


0856 


C2 


66 


1 


c 


6/1 - 10/31 


5 


5 


0862 


C2 


161 


5 


c 


6/1 - 9/30 


23 


23 


0868 


CI 


319 


10 


c 


4/1 - 8/31 


49 


49 


0879 


C2 


240 


11 


c 


5/16 - 8/20 


32 


32 



49 



Current Livestock Authorization, Estimated Livestock Carrying Capacities, and 
Selective Management Categories. 

















Estimated 


Management Allotment 


Selective 


Acres 


Livestock 


Grazing 


BLM AUMs 


Carrying 


Area Number 


Management 


Public 


Numbers 


Class 


* Period 


Authorized 


Capacity 




Category 


Land 






Begin-End 


Use 


AUMs 


Douglas County 
















Scattered Tracts (Cont 


) 














OBHJ 


C2 


120 


13 


C 


9/25 - 11/30 


20 


20 


0891 


C2 


160 


5 


c 


4/16 - 9/30 


26 


26 


0900 


C2 


68 


1 


C 


3/15 - 11/30 


10 


10 


0926 


C2 


283 


18 


c 


4/15 - 6/30 


47 


47 


0931 


C2 


40 


1 


c 


3/1 - 9/30 


6 


6 


0932 


02 


120 


10 


c 


3/1 - 5/1 


20 


20 


0935 


C2 


200 


9 


c 


4/1 - 6/30 


28 


28 


0936 


C2 


40 


1 


c 


4/16 - 10/31 


6 


6 


0942 


C2 


80 


1 


c 


3/16 - 11/15 


11 


11 


0950 


C2 


480 


11 


c 


6/1 - 8/15 


28 


28 


0954 


C2 


200 


7 


c 


4/15 - 10/15 


40 


40 


0958 


C2 


360 


6 


c 


3/1 - 10/31 


51 


51 


0962 


C2 


80 


1 


c 


3/1 - 1/31 


11 


11 


0964 


' C2 


360 


30 


c 


4/1 - 5/31 


60 


60 


0965 


M 


1,083 


26 


c 


4/1 - 5/31 


155 


155 


0967 


C2 


40 


1 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


8 


8 


0972 


C2 


79 


1 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


10 


10 


Total 




12,419 


381 






1,767 


1,767 


Asotin County 
















Scattered Tracts 
















0570 


C2 


80 


2 


c 


11/1 - 4/30 


11 


11 


0574 


C2 


120 


9 


c 


3/16 - 5/31 
9/1 - 11/30 


48 


48 



Total 



100 



11 



59 



59 



Adams County 
Scattered Tracts 

0640 
0647 
Total 

Klickitat County 
Scattered Tracts 

0555 
0558 
0559 
0561 
0572 
0584 

0593 
0601 
0615 
0616 
0617 

0619 
0620 
0626 
0629 
0637 
0638 
0641 

0657 
0661 
0665 
0673 
0675 
0682 
0690 
Total 

Whitman County 
Scattered Tracts 

0576 
0600 
0622 
Total 



C2 
C2 



C2 
C2 
C2 
C2 
C2 
C2 

C2 
C2 
C2 
C2 

C2 



C2 
C2 
C2 
C2 
C2 
C2 
C2 



C2 
C2 

C2 



160 

80 

240 



2,200 
40 
80 
40 
580 
80 

180 

40 
160 

440 

80 



C2 


184 


C2 


240 


G2 


79 


C2 


80 


C2 


1,081 


C2 


480 


C2 


240 



37 

200 
440 
160 
80 
800 
160 



8,181 



50 

38 

450 

538 



17 
2 
8 
2 

11 
2 

2 
2 
2 



155 



4 

2 

8 

14 



11/1 - 5/31 
4/1 - 9/30 



4/1 - 
4/1 - 
4/1 - 
4/1 - 
4/1 - 
3/1 - 
11/15 
3/1 - 
8/1 - 
3/1 - 
4/1 - 
6/1 - 



12/30 

5/31 

5/31 

5/31 

9/30 

4/30 

- 2/28 

2/28 

10/31 

2/28 

11/30 

9/30 



29 
10 
39 



149 
6 

16 

8 

64 

11 

22 
7 
21 
63 
13 



3 


C 


4/15 - 10/14 


15 


IS 


C 


4/1 - 5/31 


30 


2 


C 


4/1 - 11/30 


13 


2 


c 


4/15 - 6/14 


11 


29 


c 


3/1 - 3/31 


144 


5 


C 


3/1 - 2/28 


60 


4 


C 


12/1 - 3/31 
6/1 - 9/30 


30 


2 


c 


2/1 - 5/31 


7 


5 


C 


4/1 - 10/31 


29 


6 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


68 


3 


c 


4/1 - 12/31 


23 


3 


c 


6/1 - 8/31 


10 


10 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


123 


7 


c 


4/1 - 6/15 


18 



961 



29 

10 

39 



149 
6 

16 
8 

64 
11 

22 

7 

21 

63 

13 

15 
30 
13 
11 
144 
60 
30 

7 
29 

68 
23 
10 

123 
18 

961 



C 5/1 - 6/30 
C 10/1 - 2/28 
C 4/15 - 11/30 



7 


7 


8 


8 


60 


60 


75 


73" 



50 



Current Livestock Authorization, Estimated Livestock Carrying Capacities, and 
Selective Management Categories. 



Management Allotment 
Area Number 



Selective Acres 

Management Public 

Category Land 



Livestock Grazing BLM AUMs 
Numbers Class * Period Authorized 
Begin-End Use 



Lincoln County 
Scattered Tracts 

0566 
0567 
0568 
0596 
0602 
0603 
0611 
0621 
0622 
0623 
0624 
0628 
0635 

0649 
0650 
0655 
0658 
0659 
0660 
0677 
0678 
0679 
0680 
0687 
0689 
Total 



C2 


120 


1 


C 


3/1 - 2/28 


C2 


80 


2 


C 


4/1 - 9/30 


C2 


44 


1 


c 


3/15 - 11/14 


CI 


320 


10 


c 


7/1 - 10/31 


C2 


163 


3 


c 


3/1 - 10/31 


C2 


80 


4 


c 


4/1 - 6/30 


C2 


277 


6 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


C2 


240 


10 


c 


9/1 - 12/30 


C2 


358 


4 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


C2 


80 


3 


c 


4/1 - 9/30 


C2 


80 


2 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


C2 


80 


1 


c 


3/1 - 10/31 


CI 


400 


15 


c 


5/1 - 7/15 
10/1 - 11/30 


C2 


80 


4 


c 


6/15 - 8/30 


C2 


80 


2 


c 


4/1 - 11/30 


C2 


680 


12 


c 


5/1 - 11/30 


C2 


80 


3 


c 


4/15 - 8/31 


C2 


480 


33 


c 


5/20 - 7/4 


C2 


478 


13 


c 


6/1 - 10/31 


C2 


80 


1 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


C2 


359 


21 


c 


5/20 - 7/31 


C2 


476 


45 


c 


4/15 - 5/31 


C2 


80 


1 


c 


4/1 - 9/30 


C2 


160 


4 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


C2 


80 
5,435 


2 

141 


c 


5/1 - 11/15 



15 
13 

9 
40 
22 
11 
50 
40 
47 
16 
13 

8 
66 

11 
13 
85 
13 
50 
64 

8 
48 
68 

8 

27 

13 

758 



Estimated 

Carrying 

Capacity 

AUMs 



15 

13 
9 
40 
22 
11 
50 
40 
47 
16 
13 
8 
66 

80 

80 
680 

80 
480 
478 

80 
359 
476 

80 
160 

80 



5,435 



Walla Walla County 
Scattered Tracts 

0582 

Kittitas County 
Scattered Tracts 

0794 
0797 
0798 

0799 

0802 
0804 
0805 
0823 
0855 
0875 
0877 
0892 
0912 

0960 
Total 



C2 



CI 
CI 

CI 

CI 

C2 
M 

M 

C2 

C2 

C2 
C2 

C2 
C2 

C2 



40 



180 
5,095 
1,217 

2,262 

320 

290 

34 

233 

80 
40 
40 
81 
160 

200 
10,232 



5/28 - 11/27 



9 

99 



66 

26 

348 
2 
13 
4 
5 
2 
8 
6 

33 

621 



12/1 
11/1 
4/1 
11/1 
4/1 - 
11/1 ■ 
4/16 
4/1 - 
5/1 - 
3/1 - 
5/1 - 
5/1S 
5/1 ■ 
4/1 ■ 
4/1 ■ 
10/1 
4/1 ■ 



- 2/28 

- 5/31 
6/30 

- 12/31 
6/30 

- 12/31 

- 6/15 
11/30 
6/30 
2/28 
7/31 

- 6/14 
8/31 
5/31 
5/31 

- 11/30 
4/30 



26 

695 
174 

329 

53 

42 

3 

30 

12 

5 

8 

16 

23 

33 



1,449 



40 



180 
5,095 
1,217 

2,262 

320 

290 
34 

233 
80 
40 
40 
81 

160 

200 
10,232 



Yakima County 
Scattered Tracts 
















0812 
0857 
0880 
Total 


C2 
C2 
C2 


80 
564 

80 
724 


2 
40 
13 
55 


C 
C 

c 


4/1 - 8/31 
4/1 - 5/31 
5/1 - 5/31 


10 

80 

13 

103 


10 

80 

13 

103 


Garfield County 
Scattered Tracts 
















0633 


C2 


39 


1 


c 


10/1 - 2/28 


6 


6 


Klickitat Cooperative 
Management Area 
















0559 


C2 


2,233 


21 


C 


4/1 - 5/31 


42 


42 



51 



Current Livestock Authorization, Estimated Livestock Carrying Capacities, and 
Selective Management Categories. 

















Estimated 


Management Allotment 


Selective 


Acres 


Livestock 


Grazing 


BLM AUMs 


Carrying 


Area Number 


Management 


Public 


Numbers 


Class 


* Period 


Authorized 


Capacity 




Category 


Land 






Begin-End 


Use 


AUMs 


Grant County 








Scattered Tracts 
















0837 


C2 


960 


43 


C 


8/16 - 11/15 


128 


128 


0859 


C2 


560 


11 


C 


4/1 - 10/31 


80 


80 


0865 


C2 


140 


4 


C 


10/15 - 2/28 


20 


20 


0876 


C2 


160 


2 


C 


3/1 - 2/28 


27 


27 


0881 


C2 


200 


1 


c 


3/1 - 2/28 


15 


15 


0882 


CI 


446 


32 


c 


4/1 - 4/30 


64 


64 


0893 


M 


362 


362 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


52 


52 


0897 


C2 


320 


5 


C 


3/1 - 2/28 
11/1 - 11/30 


54 


54 


0898 


M 


401 


8 


C 


5/1 - 11/30 


57 


57 


0903 


CI 


160 


3 


C 


3/1 - 2/28 


32 


32 


0908 


CI 


340 


5 


C 


3/1 - 2/28 


57 


57 


0917 


C2 


682 


10 


c 


4/1 - 10/31 


68 


68 


0918 


C2 


80 


2 


C 


3/1 - 9/30 


13 


13 


0924 


C2 


480 


9 


c 


9/1 - 5/31 


68 


68 


0928 


C2 


400 


5 


C 


3/1 - 11/30 


44 


44 


0929 


C2 


240 


2 


c 


3/1 - 10/31 


16 


16 


0934 


C2 


160 


4 


c 


5/1 - 10/31 


23 


23 


0956 


C2 


120 


4 


c 


4/1 - 8/30 


20 


20 


0966 


M 


1,357 


22 


C 


4/1 - 11/ 30 


179 


179 


0974 


C2 


42 


1 


c 


4/1 - 8/31 


5 


5 


Total 




7,610 


535 






1,022 


1.022 



Quincy/Crab Creek 
Cooperative Management 
Area 

0836 

Yakima Winter Feed 
Cooperative Management 
Area 

0813 

Entiat Cooperative 
Management Area 

0764 



C2 



673 



40 



2,386 



19 



3/15 - 11/30 



4/1 - 5/31 



4/10 - 9/30 



72 



110 



Chelan Butte/Gallagher 








Flats Cooperative 








Management Area 








0752 


M 




40 


0760 


M 


2 


302 






2 


342 


Grand Total 




232 


874 



6,798 



30,073 



* C = Cattle; H = Horses; S = Sheep 

** These estimates are for analysis purposes only. Future changes in authorized us 
would only be implemented after monitoring. 



72 



10 



110 



1 


H 


3/1 - 2/28 


7 


7 


47 


C 


4/16 - 11/15 


330 


330 


48 






337 


337 



29,156 



J 



52 



Appendix E 


























Fire 


Suppression and Management 












Acreage Involved 




Fire Occurence 2 

Reported 

BLM Fires on BLM 

Outside BLM Lands Acres 

Co. FPDs 1974-1983 Burned 


Remarks 

Total Fire Management 
Acres Plan Needed for 
Burned All Units 


Total 

Planning 

Unit 1 


BLM BLM BLM BLM 
Suppression Protected Protected Inside 
Responsibility 3 By USFS By SDNR Co. FPDs 


Management Unit 






















Similkameen 


200,960 


30,129 


1,629 


28,500 


766 


29,363 


1 


1 


1 


Part Wilderness Study 
Area-Modified 
Suppression. 
Prescribed fire use 
under consideration. 


Conconully 
Jameson Lake 


141,440 
35,200 


9,739 
3,784 


1,278 




8,461 



5,209 

551 


4,530 
3,233 


3 



450 




5,100 



Good suppression 
coverage by USFS 
and SDNR. 
Fire history unknown. 


Douglas Creek 


183,680 


16,629 








2,924 


13,705 


4 


53 


53 


High man-caused risk 
area. 


Saddle Mountains 


147,200 


34,337 








33,387 


950 


8 


15,580 


49,485 


Large recurring fires. 


Badger Slope 


48,630 


7,721 








7,721 





1 


4,000 


5,440 


Large recurring fires. 


Rattlesnake Hills 


193,920 


24,726 








10,923 


13,803 


8 


10,440 


34,890 


Large recurring fires. 


Rock Creek 


36,560 


6,528 





5,990 


960 


5,468 











Fire history unknown. 


North Ferry 


294,400 


12,947 


1,283 


11,664 


11,365 


86 


5 


45 


296 


Good suppression 
coverage by USFS 
and SDNR. 


North Stevens 


341,760 


16,206 


936 


15,270 





16,206 


1 


5 


5 


Good suppression 
coverage by USFS 
and SDNR. 


Huckleberry 
Mountains 


168,960 


11,270 


25 


11,245 


2,779 


8,491 


3 


42 


2,242 


Good suppression 
coverage by USFS 
and SDNR. 


Juniper Forest 


111,360 


13,311 








2,323 


10,988 


8 


8,130 


14,000 


Intensive suppression 
area due to public 
concern. Modified 
suppression area due 
to roadless exclosure. 


Scattered 
Tracts 

Totals 


16,640,298 


127,587 


25,648 


52,726 


89,855 


49,329 


38 


26,957 


96,763 


Fire history partly 
unknown. 


8,578,808 


314,914 


30,799 


133,856 


168,762 


156,152 


80 


65,704 


208,274 




' Approximate acre 


age. 





















2 Complete fire history not available. 

3 Acres protected may differ from acres managed; for instance, Bureau of Reclamation lands protected by BLM. 



53 



54 



List of Preparers 



Name 

George Brown 
William Carleton 
Ralph Cornwall 
Kevin Devitt 
James Fisher 
Neal Hedges 
Richard Hubbard 
LouisJurs 
Lynne Keeling 
Willard Kempe 
Lee Larson 
Carol Maggio 
Richard McComas 
Dana Peterson 
Joseph Randolph 
William Schurger 
Scott Whittaker 
Gary Yeager 



Discipline 

Geologist 

Fire Management Officer 

Forester 

Realty Specialist 

Wenatchee Resource Area Manager 

Wildlife Biologist 

Range Conservationist 

Wildlife Biologist 

Clerk Typist 

Appraiser 

Border Resource Area Manager 

Clerk Typist 

Natural Resource Specialist 

Range Conservationist 

Archaeologist/Recreation Planner 

Realty Specialist 

Soil Scientist 

Planning & Environmental Coordinator/Team Leader 



55 



References Cited 



U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Spokane Resource Management Plan Land Use 
Alternatives. 1984. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Managment. Rangeland Monitoring In Oregon and Washington 
1985,54 pp. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Draft Spokane Resource Management Plan/Environmental 
Impact Statement. October, 1984, 135pp. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Spokance Resource Management Plan/Final 
Environmental Impact Statement. August, 1985, 202 pp. 



56 



Glossary 



Abatement Suppression or termination; an amount 
deducted or subtracted, as from the usual price, the 
full tax, and so on; a reduction of a tax 
assessment. 



Activity Plan A site specific plan for the 
management of one or more resources (for instance 
a CRMP, AMP). This is the most detailed level of 
BLM planning. 

Actual Use The true amount of grazing AUMs 
based on the numbers of livestock and grazing 
dates submitted by the livestock operator and 
confirmed by periodic field checks by the BLM. 



Archaeologocial Site Geographic locale containing 
structures, artifacts, material remains, and/or other 
evidence of past human activity. 

Aspect The direction a slope faces. 

Best Forest General forest management practices 
which are Management Practices consistent for all 
timber harvest and treatment activities. 



Big Game Animals Limited to elk, mule deer, bear, 
mountain goats, and bighorn sheep in Spokane 
District in this document. 



Board Feet A unit of solid wood, one foot square 
and one inch thick. 



Adjustments Changes in animal numbers, periods 
of use, kinds of classes of animals or management 
practices as warranted by specific conditions. 



Allotment An area of land where one or more 
livestock operators graze their livestock. Allotments 
generally consist of BLM lands but may also 
include other Federally managed, State owned, and 
private lands. An allotment may include one or 
more separate pastures. Livestock numbers and 
periods of use are specified for each allotment. 

Allotment Management Plans (AMP)An intensive 
livestock grazing management plan dealing with a 
specific unit of rangeland, based on multiple use 
resource management objectives. The AMP 
considers livestock grazing in relation to the 
renewable resources-watershed, vegetation, and 
wildlife. An AMP establishes the season of use, the 
number of livestock to be permitted on the range, 
and the range improvements needed. 



Broadcast Burning Allowing a controlled fire to 
burn over a designated area within well defined 
boundaries for a reduction of fuel hazard or as a 
silvicultural treatment or both. 



Browse To browse is to graze a plant; also, browse 
(noun) is the tender shoots, twigs, and leaves of 
shrubs often used as food by cattle, deer, elk, and 
other animals. 



Buffer Strip A protective area adjacent to an area 
of concern requiring special attention or protection. 
In contrast to riparian zones which are ecological 
units, buffer strips can be designed to meet varying 
management concerns. 

Bureau Planning System A process used in the 
BLM to establish land use allocations, constraints, 
and objectives for various categories of public land 
use. 



Alluvium Well sorted soil and rock debris deposited 
by water. 

Anadromous Fish which migrate from the ocean to 
breed in fresh water. Their offspring return to the 
ocean. 



Cadastral Survey A survey that creates, marks, 
defines, retraces, or reestablishes the boundaries 
and subdivisions of public land. 

Cairn A heap of stones set up as a landmark, 
monument, tombstone, and so forth. 



Animal Unit Month (AUM) The amount of forage 
consumed by one mature cow and calf under six 
months, for one month. The amount of forage 
consumed by one horse, or five sheep, or five deer, 
or six bighorn for one month is considered equal to 
one cow AUM; also a unit of measurement of 
grazing privilege that represents the privilege of 
grazing one animal for a period of one month. 



Carrying Capacity The maximum stocking rate 
possible without damaging vegetation or related 
resources. 



57 



Catchment A structure built to collect and retain 
water. 



Clearcutting A method of timber harvesting in 
which all trees, merchantable or unmerchantable, 
are cut from an area. 



Climax Plant Community The vegetative 
community that emerges after a series of 
successive vegetational stages and perpetuates 
itself indefinitely unless disturbed by outside forces. 

Commercial Forestlands Forestland capable of 
producing merchantable timber at rates of at least 
20 cubic feet per acre per year and is currently or 
prospectively accessible and not withdrawn from 
such use. 



Custodial (C) Category Allotments These are 
grazing allotments that are unfenced, small tracts 
which are intermingled with much larger acreages 
of non-BLM rangelands, this limiting BLM's 
management opportunities. The custodial category 
was further divided into C1 and C2 allotments. The 
C1 designation will allow reclassification to an I 
category allotment when BLM obtains increased 
cooperation with adjacent landowners or improved 
manageability through land acquisition for improved 
management and BLM investment in range 
improvements. The C2 designation would result in 
the allotment remaining custodial management. 



Deferment The withholding of livestock grazing on 
an area until a certain stage of plant growth is 
reached. 



Commercial Tree Species Tree species whose 
yields are reflected in the allowable cut: pines, firs, 
spruce, Douglas fir, cedar, and larch. 

Coordinated Resource Management Plan (CRMP) 

A specific management plan for a unit of land 
developed by all landowners (Federal, State, private, 
and so on) and affected interests for management 
of all resources and land uses (grazing, timber, 
wildlife habitat, and so on) within the land unit. 



Critical Growth Period A specified period of time 
in which plants need to develop sufficient 
carbohydrate reserves and produce seed, for 
instance approximately the months of May and 
June for bluebunch wheatgrass. 

Critical Habitat Any habitat, which, if lost, would 
appreciably decrease the likelihood of the survival 
and recovery of a threatened or endangered 
species or a distinct segment of its population. 
Critical habitat .nay represent any portion of the 
present habitat of a listed species and may include 
additional areas for reasonable population 
expansion. Critical habitat must be officially 
designated as such by the Fish and Wildlife Service 
or the National Marine Fisheries Service. 



Deferred Grazing Discontinuance of livestock 
grazing on an area for a specified period of time 
during the growing season to promote plant 
reproduction, establishment of new plants, or 
restoration of the vigor by old plants. 

Deferred Rotation GrazingDiscontinuance of 
livestock grazing on various parts of a range in 
succeeding years, allowing each part to rest 
successively during the growing season. This 
permits seed production, establishment of new 
seedings, or restoration of plant vigor. Two, but 
more commonly three or more, separate pastures 
are required. 

Direct Sale A sale at fair market value to a 
designated purchaser without competitive bidding. 

Distribution The uniformity of livestock grazing 
over a range area. Distribution is affected by the 
availability of water, topography, and type and 
palatibility of vegetation as well as other factors. 



Easements A right held by one person to make use 
of the land of another for a limited purpose, as right 
of passage. 



Crucial Wildlife Parts of the habitat neccesary to 
sustain a wildlife Habitat population at critical 
periods of its life cycle. This is often a limiting factor 
on the population, such as breeding habitat, winter 
habitat, and so forth. 

Cultural Site Any location that includes prehistoric 
and/or historic evidence of human use or that has 
important sociocultural value. 



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Ecological Range Condition Four classes used to 
express the degree to which the Condition Classes 
composition of the present plant community reflects 
that of climax. They are as follows: 



Successions! Stage 



Percentage of Present 

Plant Community that 

is Climax for 

the Range Site 



Climax 



Late Serai 



76-100 



51-75 



Forbs A broad-leafed herb that is not a grass, 
sedge, or rush. 



Forest Management All commercial forestland that 
is part of the timber Lands production base for 
allowable cut calculation. 



Geothermal Of or pertaining to the internal heat of 
the earth. 



Glacial Outwash The material, chiefly sand or 
gravel, washed from a glacier by the action of 
meltwater. 



Middle Serai 



Early Serai 



25-50 



0-25 



Glacial Till Glacial drift consisting of an unassorted 
mixture of clay, sand, gravel, and boulders; a stiff 
clay. 



Ecosystem An ecological unit consisting of both 
living and nonliving components which interact to 
produce a natural, stable system. 

Endangered Species A plant or animal species 
whose prospects for survival and reproduction are 
in immediate jeopardy, as designated by the 
Secretary of the Interior, and as is further defined 
by the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as 
amended. 



Environmental ImpactThe positive or negative 
effect of any action upon a given area or resource. 

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)A formal 
document to be filed with the Environmental 
Protection Agency that considers significant 
environmental impacts expected from 
implementation of a major Federal action. 

Fauna All the animals in a given area. 

Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 
(FLPMA) Public Law 94-579. October 21, 1976, often 
referred to as the BLM's "Organic Act," which 
provides the majority of the BLM's legislated 
authority, direction, policy, and basic management 
guidance. 

Flora All the plants in a given area. 



Forage All browse and herbaceous foods that are 
available to grazing animals including wildlife and 
domestic livestock. 



Grazing System The manipulation of livestock 
grazing to accomplish a desired result. (See 
Appendix D for description of the various grazing 
systems.) 



Ground Cover Vegetation, mulch, litter, rock, and 
so forth. 



Improve (i) Category Allotment These are grazing 
allotments that have a potential for resource 
improvement where BLM controls enough land to 
implement changes. 

Lek A site to which birds regularly resort for 
purposes of sexual display and courtship. 

Lieu Public lands that a patentee has a right to 
locate and select in place of lands within the limits 
of a previous grant which are occupied by persons 
given pecial protection by the law. 



Lithic A stone or rock that may be either abraded 
into the proper form for use as a tool or shaped by 
knocking pieces (flakes) off. A cluster of flakes is 
called a "lithic scatter." 



Lithic Scatter A prehistoric site characterized by a 
scatter of stone tools and flakes that may indicate a 
number of functions. 



Loam A rich, friable (crumbly) soil containing a 
relatively equal mixture of sand and silt and a 
somewhat smaller proportion of clay. 



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Locatable Minerals Minerals or materials subject to 
disposal and development through the Mining Law 
of 1872 (as amended). Generally includes metallic 
minerals such as gold and silver and other 
materials not subject to lease or sale (some 
bentonites, limestone, talc, some zeolites, and so 
on). 



Lopping Cutting off one or more branches of a tree 
whether it is standing, felled, or fallen. 

Lopping and Scattering Lopping the slash created 
by logging operations and spreading it more or less 
evenly over the ground without burning. 



Maintain (M) Category Allotment These are 
grazing allotments where satisfactory management 
has already been achieved through Conserv ation 
^Lans, Coordinated Resource Management Plans, 
or Cooperative Agreements with adjoining 
landowners. 



Management Framework Plan (MFP) Land use 
plan that established coordinated land use 
allocations for all resource and support activities for 
a specific land area within a BLM District. It also 
establishes objectives and constraints for each 
resource and support activity and provides data for 
consideration in program planning. (This process 
has been replaced by the Resource Management 
Planning process.) 



surface and subsurface resources with permanent 
impairment of the productivity of the lands that will 
best meet present and future needs. 



National Register of Historic PlacesThe official 
list, established by the Preservation Act of 1966, of 
the Nation's cultural resources worthy of 
preservation. The Register lists archeological, 
historic, and architectural properties (such as 
districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects) 
nominated for their local, State, or National 
significances by State and/or Federal agencies and 
approved by the National Register staff. The 
Register is maintained by the National Park Service. 



Noncommercial Forestland Land which is not 
capable of yielding at least 20 cubic feet of wood 
per acre per year of commercial species of land 
which is capable of producing only noncommercial 
tree species. 

Nonoperable Forestlands unsuitable for any type 
of timber harvest Forestland activity due to their 1) 
physical features; for example, extremely rocky, 
boulder fields, rim rocks, rock outcrops, and unsafe 
for logging operations and/or 2) forestlands on 
which logging activity will result in the loss of the 
site's potential for producing commercial tree 
species; for example, loss of soil through erosion, 
slope failure, and/or the inability to reforest the site 
within acceptable time limits (usually five to fifteen 
years) even with special reforestation techniques. 



Management Situation Analysis (MSA) A 

comprehensive display of physical resource data 
and an analysis of the current use, production, 
condition, and trend of the resources and the 
potentials and opportunities within a planning unit, 
including a profile of ecological values. 



Mineral Entry The location of mining claims by an 
individual to protect his right to a valuable mineral. 



Mitigation Measures (a) Avoiding the impact 
altogether by not taking a certain action or parts of 
an action, (b) Minimizing impacts by limiting the 
degree or magnitude of the action and its 
implementation, (c) Rectifying the impact by 
repairing, rehabilitating, or restoring the affected 
environment, (d) Reducing or eliminating the impact 
over time by preservation and maintenance 
operations during the life of the action. 
(e)Compensating for the impact by replacing or 
providing substitute resources or environments. 

Multiple Use Balanced management of the various 



Off-Road Vehicle (ORV) Any motorized track or 
wheeled vehicle designed for cross-country travel 
over any type of natural terrain. 



Old Growth Stand A stand of trees that is past full 
maturity and showing sign of decadence, usually 
200 year age class or older (large trees, snags and 
down logs, multilayered canopy, many species). 



Operations Inventory An intensive forest inventory 
which provides managers with information showing 
the location, acreage, silvicultural needs, and 
mortality-salvage or thinning needs within each 
section of public land. 



iding Natural Area (ONA) An area of 
unusual natural characteristics where management 
of recreation activities is necessary to preserve 
those characteristics. 



Paleontology A science dealing with the life of past 
geological periods as known from fossil remains. 



60 



Permeability (soil) The quality of a soil horizon that 
enables water or air to move through it; may be 
limited by the presence of one nearly impermeable 
horizon even though the others are permeable. 

Placer Mining A method of mining in which the 
surface material is washed for gold or other 
valuable minerals. When water under pressure is 
employed to break down the gravel, the term 
hydraulic mining is generally used. 

Planning Unit A geographic area within a BLM 
District used for assembling resource inventory 
data. 



Plant Community An association of plants of 
various species found growing together in different 
areas with similar site characteristics. 



Right-of-Way A permit or" an easement which 
authorizes the use of public lands for certain 
specified purposes, commonly for pipelines, roads, 
telephone lines, electric lines, reservoirs, and so on; 
also, the lands covered by such an easement or 
permit. 



Riparian Habitat Those terrestrial areas where the 
vegetation complex (Area or Zone) and microclimate 
conditions are products of the combined presence 
and influence of perennial and/or intermittent water, 
associated high water tables and soils which exhibit 
some wetness characteristics. 



Riprap A quanity of broken stone for foundations, 
revetments of embankments, and so on; a 
foundation or wall of stones thrown together 
irregularly. 



Plant Succession The process of vegetative 
development whereby an area becomes 
successively occupied by different plant 
communtties of higher ecological orders. 



Prescribed Fire A planned burning of live or dead 
vegetation under favorable conditions which would 
achieve desired results. 



Public Lands Any land and interest in land (such 
as mineral estate) owned by the United States and 
administered by the Secretary of the Interior 
through the Bureau of Land Management. May 
include public domain or acquired lands in any 
combination. 



Runoff That part of precipitation, as well as any 
other flow contributions, which appears in surface 
streams, either perennial or intermittent. 



Salable Minerals High volume, low value mineral 
resources including common varieties of rock, clay, 
decorative stone, sand, and gravel. 



Sensitive Species Species not yet officially listed 
but which are undergoing a status review or are 
proposed for listing according to a Federal Register 
Notice published by the Secretary of the Interior or 
Secretary of Commerce or according tc comparable 
States' documents published by State officials. 
(Reference Instruction Memorandum WO 80-722.) 



Raptors Bird species which have adapted to seize 
prey, such as eagles and hawks. 

Recreation and Public Purposes Act (R & PP Act) 

This act authorized the Secretary of the Interior to 
lease or convey public lands for recreational and 
public purposes under specified conditions to states 
or their political subdivisions and to nonprofit 
corporations and associations. 

Research Natural Areas "A naturally occurring 
physical or biological unit (RNA) where natural 
conditions are maintained insofar as possible." 
Further, the natural features are preserved for 
research and educational purposes. The features to 
be preserved may be important or unique 
ecosystems, habitats, organisms and may be 
terrestrial, freshwater, or marine. 



Serai Stage The series of relatively transitory 
communities, including plants and animals which 
develop during ecological succession, beginning 
after the Pioneer State (such as beginning with 
bare ground) to the Climax Stage. 



Shrub A low woody plant, usually with several 
stems, that may provide food and/or cover for 
animals. 



Slash The branches, bark, tops, cull logs, and 
broken or uprooted trees left on the ground after 
logging has been completed. 

Soil Loss Tolerance The maximum amount of soil 
loss as expressed in tons/acre/year that can be 
tolerated and still permit a high level of productivity 
to be sustained indefinitely. 



61 



State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPQ) The 

official within each State, authorized by the State at 
the request of the Secretary of the INterior, to act 
as a liaison for purposes of implementing the 
National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. 

State Lieu See Lieu in Glossary. 

Stocking Rate (Livestock) An expression of the 
number of animals and the grazing period allotted 
to a specific area. It is usually expressed as a ratio, 
such as acres/AUM. 

Succession The orderly process of plant 
community change. The process by which one plant 
or animal community will succeed another over 
time given the same climatic conditions. 

Sustainable Annual Harvest The yield that a forest 
can produce continuously from a given level of 
management. 

Threatened Species A plant or animal species that 
the Secretary of the Interior has determined to be 
likely to become endangered within the foreseeable 
future throughout all or most of its range. 

Timber Production See Table 4-2. Base (Low 
Intensity) 

Timber Production Base (Full) Commercial 
forestland used to produce timber on a Base (Full) 
sustainable basis. 

Timber Production Capability Classification 

TPCC)The process of partitioning forestland into 
major classes indicating relative suitability to 
produce timber on a sustained yield basis. 

Visitor Day Twelve hours of recreational use by one 
person. 

Visual Resource Management (VRM)The planning, 
design, and implementation of management 
objectives to provide acceptable levels of visual 
impacts. 

Visual Resource Management Classes The 

degree of aceptable visual change within a 
characteristic landscape. A class is based upon the 
physical and sociological characteristics of any 
given homogeneous area and serves as a 
management objective. 

Class I areas (preservation) provide for natural 
ecological changes only. This class includes 
primitive areas, some natural areas, some wild and 
scenic rivers, and other similar sites where 



landscape modification activities should be 
restricted. 

Class II (retention of the landscape character) 
includes areas where changes in any of the basic 
eiecments (form, line, color, or texture) caused by 
management activity should not be evident in the 
characteristic landscape. 

Class ill (partial retention of the landscape 
character) includes areas where changes in the 
basic elements (form, line, color, or texture) caused 
by management activity may be evident in the 
characteristic landscape. However, the changes 
should remain subordinate to the visual strength of 
the existing character. 

Class IV (modification of the landscape character) 
includes areas where changes may subordinate the 
original composition and character; however, they 
should reflect what could be a natural occurrence 
within the characteristic landscape. 

Class V (rehabilitation or enhancement of the 
landscape character) includes areas where change 
is needed. This class applies to areas where the 
landscape character has been so disturbed that 
rehabilitation is needed. This class would apply to 
areas where the quality class has been reduced 
because of unacceptable intrusions. It should be 
considered an interim short-term classification until 
one of the other classes can be reached through 
rehabilitation or enhancement. 



Water Quality The chemical, physical, and 
biological characteristics of water with respect to its 
suitablility for a particular use. 

Watershed All lands which are enclosed by a 
continuous hydrologic drainage divide and lie 
upslope from a specified point on a stream. 

Wetlands or Wetland Habitat Permanently wet or 
intermittently flooded areas where the water table 
(fresh, saline, or brackish) is at, near, or above the 
soil surface for extended intervals, where hydric 
(wet) soil conditions are normally exhibited, and 
where depths generally do not exceed two meters. 
Vegetation generally consists of emergent water 
loving forms (hydrophytes) which require at least a 
periodically saturated soil condition for growth, and 
reproduction. In certain instances, vegetation may 
be completely lacking. 

Wilderness Study Area (WSA) An area determined 
to have wilderness characteristics. Study areas will 
be subject to interdisciplinary analysis and public 
comment to determine wilderness suitability. 
Suitable areas will be recommended to the 
President and Congress for wilderness designation. 



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BLM-OR-ES-87-1 6-1 793